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Everyman, I will go with thee, and be thy guide, 
In thy most need to go by thy side. 

This is No. 402 of Everyman's Library. A 
list of authors and their works in this series 
will be found at the end of this volume. The 
publishers will be pleased to send freely to all 
applicants a separate, annotated list of the 








JOHN WOOLMAN, bom in 1720 at Nor- 
thampton, New Jersey, America, of Quaker 
parentage. Became a Quaker preacher 
about the age of twenty- two, especially in- 
veighing against slavery. Came to England 
in 1772, but died of smallpox at York in 
the same year. 




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First Published in this Edition igiO 

Reprinted 1922, 19 36 



From the days of Charles Lamb to those of Dr. Eliot of 
Harvard, the unique charm and worth of the Journal of 
John Woolman have been signalled by a thinker of dis- 
tinction here and there, and the book, if not widely known, 
has quietly found its way to many hearts and been re- 
printed in sundry editions. The more formal works, how- 
ever, in which this gentle and audacious eighteenth-century 
Quaker-preacher spoke out his whole careful mind have 
been for the most part neglected. These works are some- 
times prosy, always indifferent to style in their unflinching 
quest for " pure wisdom," often concerned with the dead 
issue of negro slavery. Yet even in this last case they 
have much value as historic documents ; no full knowledge 
of Woolman's spirit is possible without them ; and not to 
know that spirit in its entirety is a distinct loss. 

The present edition, while making no claim to critical 
completeness, presents the main accessible body of Wool- 
man's writings. Here is a well of purest water, " dug 
deep," to use the Quaker phrase. The mere limpidity of 
the water will be joy enough for some: others gazing into 
it may feel that they see down to the proverbial Truth — 
the very origin of things, the foundations of the moral 

A studious moderation of utterance is the first quality to 
make itself felt in Woolman's works. To casual or jaded 
readers who crave the word-embroidery, the heightened 
note, of the romanticist in style, the result may seem 
colourless. Here is a lack of adjectives, an entire absence 
of emphasis, a systematic habit of under-statement that, in 
the climax of a paragraph or the crisis of an emotion, seems 
at times almost ludicrous. Yet to the reader of severer 
taste, this very absence of emphasis, so quaintly sober, so 
sensitive in its unfaltering reticence, becomes the choicest 
grace of Woolman's style. As is the style, so is the man. 


viii John Woolman's Journal 

Woolman ** studied to be quiet," and his steady self- 
discipline was rewarded by a scrupulous yet instinctive 
control over the finest shades of verity in speech and life. 
In the youthful trouble of deep religious feeling, when he 
" went to meetings," as he expressively tell us, "in an 
awful frame of mind," he spoke a few words one day, under 
" a strong exercise of spirit." " But not keeping close to 
the divine opening, I said more than was required of me, 
and being soon sensible of my error, I was afflicted in mind 
some weeks, without any light or comfort, even to such a 
degree that I could not take satisfaction in anything." 
The mistake was not often repeated; for as he writes in 
memorable words: " As I was thus humbled and disci- 
plined under the Cross, my understanding became more 
strengthened to distinguish the pure spirit that inwardly 
moves upon the heart, and taught me to wait in silence, 
sometimes for many weeks together, till I felt that rise 
which prepares the creature to stand like a trumpet through 
which the Lord speaks to His flock." A fine passage to- 
wards the end of the Journal shows that the danger of 
speaking without this " pure spirit " was ever present to 
him. " Many love to hear eloquent orations, and if there 
is not a careful attention to the Gilt, men who have once 
laboured in the pure Gospel ministry, growing weary of 
suffering and ashamed of appearing weak, may kindle a 
fire, compass themselves about with sparks, and walk in 
the light, not of Christ who is under suffering, but of that 
fire which they going from the Gift have kindled ; and that 
in hearers which has gone from the meek suffering state 
into the worldly wisdom, may be warmed with this fire 
and speak highly of these labours. In this journey, a 
labour hath attended my mind that the ministers amongst 
us may be preserved in the meek, feeling life of truth." 
No man could so keenly analyse the snare of fluency and 
popularity, who had not spent a life on guard. The reserve 
of his writings is a natural consequence. One searches 
these pages in vain, often controversial though they be, 
for a single point in which the note is forced or emotion 
escapes control. 

Yet the emotional intensity concealed beneath this 

Introduction ix 

equable habit of soul, is evident from the first line to the 
last. In the fine phrase of the Friends after his death, 
Woolman " underwent many deep baptisms; " how deep, 
the Journal reveals. He was a man of impassioned tender- 
ness. Even as a child he saw " that as the mind is moved 
by an inward principle to love God as an invisible, incom- 
prehensible Being, so by the same principle it is moved to 
love Him in all his manifestations in the visible world. 
That as by his breath the flame of life has kindled in all 
sensible creatures, to say that we love God £is unseen and 
at the same time exercise cruelty toward the least creature 
moving by his life, or by life derived from Him, is a contra- 
diction in itself." Woolman did not only say these things, 
he felt them. He is among the great lovers of the world. 
His tenderness for animals was always keen, from the days 
in which, as he has told us, he suffered childish remorse 
from having killed a robin, to his last voyage, when in the 
midst of personal suffering, he noted pityingly the dull and 
pining appearance of the " dunghill fowls " on board. " I 
believe," he writes, " where the love of God is verily per- 
fected, a care will be felt that we do not lessen that sweet- 
ness of life in the animal creation which the great Creator 
intends for them under our government." 

He who so sympathised with the robin and the cock 
was filled with a yearning compassion for the sorrows of 
humanity. Of him as of Shelley it might well be said, 
" He was as a nerve o'er which do creep the else unfelt 
oppressions of the earth." We read of his appetite failing 
through the agitation of his mind over human pain and his 
relations to it. In his last illness he broke forth in words 
that might have been uttered by S. Catherine of Siena: 
" O Lord my God ! The amazing horrors of darkness were 
gathered around me and covered me all over, and I saw no 
way to go forth. I felt the misery of my fellow-beings 
separated from the divine harmony, and it was heavier 
than I could bear; I was crushed down under it." All 
great lovers are great sufferers : Woolman was no exception 
to the rule. 

If he knew deep sorrow he knew deep joy also, as all 
must do who like him " live under the Cross and simply 

X John Woolman's Journal 

follow the operations of Truth." More is unuttered than 
uttered in the Journal, yet through its silences we may 
read an inner experience akin to that of Bunyan or Pascal. 
Like these great protagonists of the Spirit, he knew a peace 
given " not as the world giveth." For peace can be where 
ease is not. Decorous son of an unillumined century, John 
Woolman is of the company of the Mystics. He is of 
those led by the Shepherd of Souls beside the still waters. 
He has suggested his own secret: " Some glances of real 
beauty may be seen in their faces who dwell in true meek- 
ness. There is a harmony in the sound of that voice to 
which Divine love gives utterance, and some appearance of 
right order in their temper and conduct whose passions are 
regulated. Yet all these do not fully show forth that 
inward life to those who have not felt it; but this white 
stone and new name are known rightly only to such as 
have them." " Pure " is the central word of the Journal, 
and the beauty of pure contemplative quietude is the final 
impression conveyed by this record so full of anguish over 
the sorrows of humanity and of unflinching witness against 
wickedness, borne at the expense of the crucifixion of the 
natural man. 

A chief value of Woolman's works consists in his serene 
application of his mystical intuitions to the affairs of this 
world. He who " dwelt deep in an inward stillness " 
studied his age with a penetrating sagacity that allowed 
no evasions. The man so carefully on his guard against 
extravagance was a reformer who pushed his demands, as 
some would think, almost beyond the border of sanity. 
No temper was ever more opposed to fanaticism : yet many 
readers may question whether he escaped the doom of the 
fanatic. And the most pertinent reason for a re-issue of 
his works at this juncture is, that in our own day so many 
hearts are troubled like his own. A generation seeking 
guidance on the path of social duty will find here a pre- 
cursor of Ruskin and Tolstoi, a man whose thought, despite 
the quaintness of his diction, has a quite extraordinary 
modernness, and whose searchings of conscience are none 
of them familiar. 

Introduction xi 

The main contemporary issue that agitated Woolman 
was of course the slave-trade, and he was long regarded all 
but exclusively as a herald of the anti-slavery movement. 
But the Fabian Society did well to suggest, in reprinting 
one of his tracts, the broader scope of his thinking. It will 
be evident from this edition that his horror of chattel 
slavery was one incident only in that general attitude 
toward civilisation which drew from him the bitter cry: 
" Under a sense of deep revolt and an overflowing stream 
of unrighteousness, my life has often been a life of mourn- 
ing." The central evil which he opposed was, in brief, the 
exploitation of labour: the ideal which he sought was a 
society in which no man should need to profit by the de- 
gradation of his fellow-men. For economic analysis of the 
modern t5rpe one naturally looks in vain ; moral analysis of 
social relations has, however, rarely been carried farther. 
These Uttle essays " On Labour," " On the Right Use of 
the Lord's Outward Gifts," " On Loving our Neighbour," 
these " Considerations on the True Harmony of Mankind," 
this " Word of Remembrance and Caution to the Rich," 
reveal through their quaint formalities of phrase a searching 
spirit not to be outdone to-day. 

Woolman felt " a concern in the spring of pure love, that 
all who have plenty of outward substance may example 
others in the right use of things, may carefully look into 
the condition of poor people, and beware of exacting of 
them in regard to their wages." He was solicitous, as 
many have been since his day, over the perplexities of 
those who seek to combine a due care for their own families 
with consideration for the wage-earner, " in a fruitful land 
where the wages bear so small a proportion to the neces- 
saries of life. " There are few if any," he says truly, 
" could behold their fellow-creatures lie long in distress and 
forbear to help them when they could do it without any 
inconvenience; but customs, requiring much labour to 
support them, do often lie heavy upon the poor, while they 
who live in these customs are so entangled in a multitude 
of unnecessary concerns that they think but little of the 
hardships the poor people go through." To lessen these 
" concerns," thus to emancipate the labourer from a part 

xii John Woolman's Journal 

of the crushing burden of production, became his central 
thought. " In beholding that unnecessary toil which many 
go through in supporting outward greatness, and procuring 
delicacies; in beholding how the true calmness of life is 
changed into hurry, and that many, by eagerly pursuing 
outward treasure, are in danger of withering as to the 
inward state of the mind; in meditating on the works of 
this spirit, and the desolations it makes among the pro- 
fessors of Christianity, I may thankfully acknowledge that 
I often feel pure love beget longings in my mind for the 
exaltation of the peaceable Kingdom of Christ, and an 
engagement to labour according to the Gift bestowed upon 
me for promoting an humble, plain, temperate way of 

The Simple Life is then Woolman's plea, and the neces- 
sity for social sacrifice the burden of his teaching. This 
plea he presents with no vagueness or Wagnerian senti- 
mentality, but with ar alarming precision of outline. 

No man ever described better the insensible growth of 
worldly convention into that custom which " lies upon us 
with a weight heavy as frost and deep almost as life," 
Noting the gradual lapse of the Friends from their earlier 
standards of unwordliness, he says: " These things, though 
done in calmness without any show of disorder, do yet 
deprave the mind in like manner and with as great cer- 
tainty as prevailing cold congeals water." And again, 
" Though the change from day to night is by a motion so 
gradual as scarcely to be perceived, yet when night is come 
we behold it very different from the day; and thus as 
people become wise in their own eyes and prudent in their 
own sight, customs rise up from the spirit of this world and 
spread, by little and little, till a departure from the sim- 
plicity that is in Christ becomes as distinguishable as light 
from darkness to such who are crucified to the world." 
So the generations as they pass slip further and further 
from " pure wisdom," for " the customs of their parents, 
and their neighbours, working upon their minds, and they 
from thence conceiving ideas of things and modes of con- 
duct, the entrance into their hearts becomes in a great 
measure shut up against the gentle movings of Uncreated 

Introduction xiii 

Purity." Woolman is too wise to feel resentment against 
those so hardened; rather he says, " Compassion hath filled 
my heart toward my fellow-creatures involved in customs, 
grown up in the wisdom of this world, which is foolishness 
with God." 

To his own spirit, we may weU apply the description in 
the little essay on " Merchandising," of the growing sensi- 
tiveness among the faithful friends of Christ, who " in- 
wardly breathe that His Kingdom may come on earth " 
and " learn to be very attentive to the means He may 
appoint for promoting pure righteousness." His ideal is 
" that state in which Christ is the Light of our life," so 
that " our labours stand in the true harmony of society." 
" In this state," he writes, '* a care is felt for a reformation 
in general, that our own posterity, with the rest of mankind 
in succeeding ages, may not be entangled by oppressive 
customs, transmitted to them through our hands." When 
we consider the deepening desire in our own day to lessen 
for the next generation that intolerable burden of social 
compunction which rests upon ourselves, may we perhaps 
dare to hope that this blessed " state," in which John 
Woolman himself constantly abode, is becoming common ? 

The definite issues suggested in these pages are often 
surprisingly modern. Now the fine old Quaker is per- 
turbed over the question of tainted money: " Have the 
gifts and possessions received by me from others been con- 
veyed in a way free from all unrighteousness so far as I 
have seen?" Now he notes the evils of over- work: "I 
have observed that too much labour not only makes the 
understanding dull, but so intrudes upon the harmony of 
the body that, after ceasing from our toil, we have another 
to pass through before we can enjoy the sweetness of rest," 
and proceeds to plead with energy for mercy and modera- 
tion in the standard of toil exacted from the poor. " The 
condition of many who dwell in cities," had " afiected him 
with brotherly sympathy." Again we find him touching 
on the problem of dangerous trades, or analysing wdth the 
puzzle of the pioneer the ancient fallacy that the produc- 
tion of luxuries relieves economic distress — a fallacy to 
which he gives in quaint phrase a sound refutal. In the 

xiv John Woolman's Journal 

fifth chapter of the " Word of Remembrance/* the in- 
terested reader will find a remarkable and very beautiful 
prophecy of the central principle of the settlement move- 
ment. And so we might go on. 

In the twelfth century Woolman's solution would pro- 
bably have been found in withdrawal from the evil world 
to the purity of desert or convent. Not so in the 
eighteenth. He remained among his brethren, bearing 
on his heart the burden of the common guilt: he was one of 
the first people to perceive that the moral sense must control 
not only our obvious but also our hidden relations with 
our fellows. And his experience may be said to mark the 
exact point where the individualism of the Puritan age broke 
down, unable to stand the strain of the growing sense of 
social solidarity. The intense but often naively self-centred 
conception of the religious life common to a Bunyan and 
an Edwardes had proved inadequate, and a new demand 
for an extension of Christianity to the remotest reaches of 
practical life, till human society be transformed in its depth 
and its breadth by a supernatural power, was consciously 

Yet if Woolman's problem be social, his solution is indi- 
vidualistic. It is found in a resolute endeavour to clear 
his own life of any dependence on evil. Among the many 
experiments on the same lines, none more thorough-going 
is recorded ; he pushed consistency to a farther point than 
Tolstoi or Thoreau. It is the story of this experiment that 
he tells us in the Journal, with a rare sincerity. See him 
as a lad, starting out peaceably at his tirade of tailor, easily 
reaching commercial success — for Woo^an possessed prac- 
tical ability, — but " perceiving merchandise to be attended 
with much cumber," and deciding accordingly not to 
develop his business. Watch from this time the interaction 
of two co-operating forces, a craving for personal purity, 
and a horror of profiting by human pain, — and note that 
while the first impulse never waned, the second became 
more and more constraining. The record of his various 
" concerns " is delightfully human and appealing. He 
hated to be morally fussy, and the necessity of violating 
good breeding at the call of conscience caused him acute 

Introduction xv 

distress, for he had an ingrained instinct of good manners. 
Yet though " the exercise was heavy," he bravely took his 
elders to task on occasion : refused to accept free hospitaUty 
from slave-holders, forcing money on them for his enter- 
tainment; and, what is still harder, laboured with his 
friends. " Thou who travels in the work of the ministry, 
and art made very welcome by thy friends, it is good for 
thee to dwell deep that thou mayest feel and understand 
the spirits of people. ... I have seen that in the midst of 
kindness and smooth conduct, to speak close and home to 
them who entertain us on points that relate to their out- 
ward interest, is hard labour, and sometimes when I have 
felt Truth lead toward it I have found myself disqualified 
by a superficial friendship. . . . To see the failings of our 
friends and think hard of them without opening that which 
we ought to open, and still carry a face of friendship, this 
tends to undermine the foundation of true unity." A 
man, sensitive, humble, and well-bred as Woolman evidently 
was, who can write thus, is pretty sure to know " deep 
exercises that are mortifying to the creaturely will." Some 
of his concerns, as those relating to the payment of taxes 
and the entertainment of soldiers, were common to the 
Friends ; others are apparently inventions of his own. As 
time went on they increased and multiplied, all practically 
springing from the common root, the desire to avoid the 
oppression of the poor. Greed and the wish for ease came 
to seem a root of all evil. Travelling among the Indians, 
he felt the intimate relation of their misfortunes to the 
hunger of the English race for luxury and land. . The use 
of dyes harmful to the worker forced him to wear undyed 
garments, even though to his meek distress a passing 
fashion of white hats made him run the danger of being 
confounded with the children of this world. A concern 
came upon him to go on foot in his preaching journeys: 
at first apparently that he might, like his Master, appear in 
the form of a servant; later, that he might have no com- 
phcity in the miseries suffered by the little post-boys 
employed in the chaises. Nothing is clearer to the reader 
of the Journal than the rapid increase of this holy or foolish 
sensitiveness. Seeking not to trade with oppressors, he 

xvi John Woolman's Journal 

refuses to gratify his palate with sugars prepared by the 
slave labour: under inward pressure to visit the West 
Indies, he has anxious scruples about taking passage on a 
ship owned by the West India Company, but decides that 
he may do so if he pays a sum sufficiently larger than that 
demanded to compensate the labour involved on another 
basis than that of slavery. At last — and here the crisis of 
his experience draws near — he feels himself inwardly bound 
to go to England ; and decides that it is his duty to travel 
in the steerage, because forsooth the adornmenttj of the 
cabin have cost vain and degrading labour. The horrors 
of a steerage passage in those days are well known to us 
from other sources ; and among our visions of the martyrs 
of Truth we may well preserve the picture of John Wool- 
man, his patient Quaker face upturned at midnight through 
the hatch, panting for a breath of air. Through the 
studied quiet of the narrative, the shrinking of the flesh 
can plainly be felt. The whole story at this point palpi- 
tates with a solemn pain and an exceeding peace. As 
usual, the sufferings of others form the larger part of his 
pain: he is wracked with sympathy for the sailors, and 
moved to a grieved indignant study of their temptations 
and afflictions which is good reading still to-day. Arrived 
in England, his experience deepens. As usual, he writes 
without emphasis: but his distress and tenderness are in 
every line. In a passage that reads as if penned by Engels 
or Rowntree, he makes careful pitying note of the scale of 
wages and cost of living, and cries out sharply, "Oh, may 
the wealthy consider the poor! May those who have 
plenty lay these things to heart! " We perceive that he is 
realising with increasing perplexity the extraordinary in- 
tricacy with which " the spirit of oppression " is entwined 
with the most innocent and necessary pursuits. " Silence 
as to every motion proceeding from the love of money and 
an humble waiting upon God to know his will concerning 
us appear necessary: * He alone is able ' so to direct us in 
our outward employments that pure universal love may 
shine forth in our proceedings." In " bowedness of spirit " 
he proceeds northward, and it is evident that the body is 
growing weaker as he makes his silent laborious way on 

Introduction xvii 

foot, bearing from town to town the message of his Lord. 
He is offered to drink when thirsty, in silver vessels, and 
declines, " telling his case with weeping." Disgusted, 
** being but weakly," with " the scent arising from that 
filth which more or less infects the air of all closely settled 
towns," he feels distress both in body and mind with that 
which is impure, and a longing " that people might come 
in to cleanness of spirit, cleanness of person, and cleanness 
about their houses and garments: " noting at the same 
time, with his accustomed sagacity, that " some who are 
great carry delicacy to a great height themselves, and yet 
real cleanUness is not generally promoted." So continues 
his travail of soul, recorded in these pathetic and illumined 
pages, and before long the fatal disorder small-pox, seizes 
upon him. He dies among strangers after lying patiently 
through his illness in the spirit of prayer, still saying char- 
acteristically to the young apothecary Friend with whom 
he had " found a freedom to confer," " that if anything 
should be proposed as to medicine that did not come 
through defiled channels or oppressive hands, he should be 
willing to consider and take it so far as he found freedom." 
Almost his last words, when already he could hardly be 
understood, are charged with his steady social compunction. 
Dear John Woolman! Pure and high spirit, incapable 
of evasion, noteworthy no less for restraint and gentleness 
than for the resolute determination to translate the un- 
dimmed vision of the Perfect Right into terms of our daily 
existence! Whither would his "concerns" have carried 
him, had not the Angel of Small-Pox ended his wistful and 
unrelenting quest? He died in 1772, having lived his life 
before the industrial revolution, in days which we are wont 
to envy as simpler and less beset by social problems than 
our own. Certainly they were days in which the network 
of human relations was far less intricate than now. Yet 
the process in which he was engaged reached out to limits 
beyond our power to scan, and his experience is in one 
point of .view an heroic reductio ad absurdum. No more 
instructive attempt was ever made to attain personal purity 
while neither withdrawing from the world nor transforming 
it. To-day the number is on the increase of persons who 
B 402 

xviii John Woolman's Journal 

suffer under the sense of social guilt. All who know 
such suffering and are inchned to think the conversion of 
individuals adequate as an ultimate remedy, will do well 
to ponder these pages. For the conclusion is forced on us 
that Woolman was in an impasse : and while we love and 
reverence the heavenly sturdiness of soul possessed by 
this eighteenth - century saint, we must recognise with 
amusement touched by tenderness the hopelessness of his 
efforts to attain personal purity, the ridiculous extremes of 
isolation into which such a conscientious effort, if logically 
carried out, would lead us. The definite inference from 
Woolman's life and thought will be for most modern people 
the conviction of the hopelessness of the attempt to achieve, 
by individual means and private effort, a satisfying social 
righteousness in an unchanged world. 

After all, Woolman's trouble and sorrow and tumult of 
spirit, so suggestive, so helpful to modern souls, were 
transitory. At the heart of his " endless agitation " sub- 
sisted a " central peace." His was the grace to know that 
" deep humility is a strong bulwark," and to " look less at 
the effects of the labour than at the pure motion and 
reality of the concern." The gentleness with which he 
delivered his fiery message was more than a manner due to 
Quaker training, or even than a result of resolute self- 
discipline : it was the index of an inward stillness in which 
his soul dwelt undisturbed. Let us hope that the days 
may come when the " concern " about profiting by the 
painful or degrading labour of others will have an interest 
as exclusively historic as the " concern " about holding 
slaves has already attained. Tremulously it may be, yet 
soberly and joyously, many clear-minded and practical 
people are beginning to hope for such a day. When it 
comes, the immediate message of Woolman will be less 
cogent, but he will still continue to be read by those who 
care for the revelations of a beautiful soul. These pages 
offer more than light on the path of social duty; they 
offer fellowship with a spirit that " dwelt deep," and 
attained an abiding loveliness because responsive through 
all turmoil of spirit and all outward suffering, to the " gentle 
movings of Uncreated Purity." " That purity of hfe," 

Introduction xix 

wrote he, ** which proceeds from faithfulness in following 
the Spirit of Truth, this habitation has often been opened 
before me as a place of retirement for the children of the 
light, where we may stand separated from that which dis- 
ordereth and confuseth the affairs of society." Such a 
" place of retirement for the Children of the Light," this 
book affords. 


The following is a hst of the works of John Woolman: — 

Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes, recommended to 
the Professors of Christianity of every Denomination, Part I., 1754; 
Part II., 1762; many later issues of both parts; Considerations on 
Pure Wisdom and Human Policy, on Labour, Schools, and the Right 
Use of the Lord's Outward Gifts, 1768, and numerous later reprints; 
Considerations on the True Harmony of Mankind, and how it is to be 
Maintained, 1770, and later reprints; an Epistle to the Quarterly and 
Monthly Meetings of Friends, 1772; Remarks on Sundry Subjects, 
1773, and later reprints; Serious Considerations on Various Subjects of 
Importance (containing the four above works, and some expressions of 
John Woolman in his last illness), 1773; A First Book for Children, 
1774 (?); A Journal of the Life, Gospel, Labomrs, and Christian Ex- 
periences of John Woolman, 1774, and many later editions; with Intro- 
duction by John Greenleaf Whittier, 1871; with Introduction by A. 
Smellie, and Appreciation by J. G. Whittier {Books of the Heart), 1898; 
new century edition, with bibliography, etc., 1900; with foreword by 
Rev. R. J. Campbell, 1903 ; A Word of Remembrance and Caution to 
the Rich, 1793; later editions, published by Fabian Society, 1898, 1908. 

Letters : Edited by J. Kendall (Letters on Religious Subjects, vol. 
ii.), 1820; by J. and I. Comly {Friends' Miscellany, vol. i.), 1834; in 
Journal, and in Friends' Review, vols, v.-xxviii. 

Works: 1774; 3th edition, 181 8. 

Life: Saint John Woolman {Eclectic Review), 1861; David Dimcan, 
paper read at Manchester Friends' Institute, 1871; Dora Greenwell, 
1871; W. Garrett Horder, A Quaker Saint {The Young Man), 1874; 
reprinted in Quaker Worthies, 1896; T. Green, 1885, with Introduction 
by H. C. G. Moule, 1897; Sketdi of the Life of John Woolman (Booklet 
Series, No. 6), 1896; in Present Day Papers, vol. iii., 1900; a poem by 
Bernard Barton, " A Tribute to the Memory of John Woolman," 
appeared in vol. iii. of The Friend, and references to Woolman are 
found in Lamb, and in H. Crabb Robinson's Diary. 


Advertisement to the Reader ..... 3 

The Testimony of Friends in Yorkshire ... 5 

A Testimony of the Monthly -Meeting of Friends . 9 

A Journal of the Life and Travels of John Woolman i? 

The Last Epistle and Other Writings 

Considerations on the True Harmony of Mankind 

An Epistle to the Quarterly and Monthly-Meetings 
OF Friends ....... 



Remarks on Sundry Subjects .... 

Some Expressions of John Woolman in his Last Illness 245 





The manuscript JOURNAL of our late Friend John 
WooLMAN, was ended in England ; where he also finished 
all his Labours. It appears, by a Letter which he sent^ 
in his last Illness, to a Friend in London, that he did not 
intend the whole should be printed, and that he desired 
the said Friend to revise what he had written in this 
Nation, and leave out such Parts as he should think 
proper. It was, notwithstanding, sent entire, without 
any Alteration, to America; where it was soon after 
printed, together with several Tracts which had been 
published in his Life-time. But, as some Passages in the 
Journal contain Observations which appear to have been 
intended as private Memorandums only, and others relate 
to Circumstances which happened in his native Country, 
not expedient to be preserved on Record in this Naticn, 
it is apprehended that the following Abridgement of it 
will be acceptable to Friends, and may be of general 
Service; and, as many weighty Arguments and pertinent 
Advices, relative to Slavery and the Oppression of the 
Negroes in the Plantations, are contained in the Journal, 
it was therefore apprehended that two small Tracts on 
that Subject might be omitted in this Abridgement. 





At their Quarterly-meeting held at York^ the 24th and 2^th 
of the third Month 1773, concerning 


Of Mount-Holly, in the Province of New- Jersey, in America; 
who departed this Life at the House of our Friend, Thomas 
Priestman, in the Suburbs of this City, the jth of the 
tenth month 1772, and was interred in the Burying-ground 
of Friends, the gth of the same, aged about fifty-two Years 

This our valuable Friend, having been under a religious 
Engagement for some Time to visit Friends in this Nation, 
and more especially us in the northern Parts, undertook 
the same in full Concurrence and near Sympathy with his 
Friends and Brethren at home, as appeared by Certificates 
from the monthly and quarterly Meetings to which he 
belonged, and from the Spring-meeting of Ministers and 
Elders, held at Philadelphia for Pennsylvania and New- 

He arrived in the City of London the beginning of the 
last Yearly-meeting, and, after attending that Meeting, 
travelled northward, visiting the Quarterly-meetings of 
Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Northamptonshire, Oxford- 
shire, and Worcestershire, and divers particular Meetings 
in his Way. 

He visited many Meetings on the West Side of this 
County ; also some in Lancashire and Westmorland ; from 
whence he came to our Quarterly-meeting in the last 


6 John Woolman's Journal 

ninth Month; and though much out of Health, yet was 
enabled to attend all the Sittings of that Meeting except 
the last. 

His Disorder, then, which proved the Small-pox, 
increased speedily upon him, and was very afflicting; 
under which he was supported in much Meekness, 
Patience, and Christian Fortitude. To those who 
attended him in his Illness his Mind appeared to be 
centered in divine Love; under the precious Influence 
whereof, we believe, he finished his Course, and entered 
into the Mansions of everlasting Rest. 

In the early Part of his Illness he requested a Friend 
to write, and he broke forth thus : 

" Lord, my God! the amazing Horrors of Darkness 
were gathered around me and covered me all over, 
and I saw no Way to go forth: I felt the Misery of my 
Fellow-creatures separated from the divine Harmony, 
and it was heavier than I could bear, and I was crushed 
down under it: I lifted up my Hand, and stretched out 
my Arm, but there was none to help me : I looked round 
about, and was amazed: In the Depths of Misery, 
Lord! I remembered that thou art omnipotent; that 
I had called thee Father; and I felt that I loved thee, 
and I was made quiet in thy Will, and I waited for 
Deliverance from thee; thou hadst Pity upon me when 
no Man could help me : I saw that Meekness under suffer- 
ing was shewed to us in the most affecting Example of 
thy Son, and thou wast teaching me to follow him, and 
I said, Thy Will, Father, be done." 

Many more of his weighty Expressions might have 
been inserted here, but it was deemed unnecessary, they 
being already published in Print. 

He was a Man endued with a large natural Capacity; 
and, being obedient to the Manifestations of divine Grace, 
having in Patience and Humility endured many deep 
Baptisms, he became thereby sanctified and fitted for 
the Lord's Work, and was truly serviceable in his Church : 
Dwelling in awful Fear and Watchfulness, he was careful, 
in his public Appearances, to feel the putting forth of 
the divine Hand, so that the Spring of the Gospel-ministry 

John Woolman's Journal 7 

often flowed through him with great Sweetness and Purity, 
as a refreshing Stream to the weary Travellers toward 
the City of God: Skilful in dividing the Word, he was 
furnished by Him, in whom are hid all the Treasures of 
Wisdom and Knowledge, to communicate freely to the 
several States of the People where his Lot was cast. His 
Conduct at other Times was seasoned with the like 
watchful Circumspection and Attention to the Guidance 
of divine Wisdom, which rendered his whole Conversation 
uniformly edifying. 

He was fully perswaded that as the Life of Christ comes 
to reign in the Earth, all Abuse and unnecessary Oppres- 
sion, both of the human and brute Creation, will come 
to an End; but, under the Sense of a deep Revolt and 
overflowing Stream of Unrighteousness, his Life has been 
often a Life of mourning. 

He was deeply concerned on account of that inhuman 
and iniquitous Practice of making Slaves of the People 
of Africa, or holding them in that State; and, on that 
Account, we understand he hath not only written some 
Books, but travelled much on the Continent of America, 
in order to make the Negro-masters (especially those in 
Profession with us) sensible of the evil of such a Practice; 
and though, in his Journey to England, he was far removed 
from the outward Sight of their Sufferings, yet his deep 
Exercise of Mind remained, as appears by a short Treatise 
he wrote in this Journey, and his frequent Concern to 
open the miserable State of this deeply-injured People. 
His Testimony in the last Meeting he attended was on 
this Subject; wherein he remarked, that as we, as a 
Society, when under outward Sufferings, had often found 
it our Concern to lay them before those in Authority, 
and thereby, in the Lord's Time, had obtained Relief, 
so he recommended this oppressed Part of the Creation 
to our Notice, that we may, as way may open, represent 
their Sufferings, in an Individual, if not a Society Capacity, 
to those in Authority. 

Deeply sensible that the Desire to gratify People's 
Inclinations in Luxury and Superfluities is the principal 
Ground of Oppression, and the Occasion of many un- 

8 John Woolman's Journal 

necessary Wants,, he believed it to be his Duty to be a 
Pattern of great Self-denial with Respect to the Things 
of this Life, and earnestly to labour with Friends in the 
Meekness of Wisdom, to impress on their Minds the great 
Importance of our Testimony in these Things, recom- 
mending to the Guidance of the blessed Truth in this and 
all other Concerns, and cautioning such as are experienced 
therein against contenting themselves with acting up to 
the Standard of others, but to be careful to make the 
Standard of Truth, manifested to them, the Measure of 
their Obedience; for, said he, " that Purity of Life which 
proceeds from Faithfulness in following the Spirit of 
Truth, that State where our Minds are devoted to serve 
God, and all our Wants are bounded by his Wisdom, — 
this Habitation has often been opened before me, as a 
Place of retirement for the Children of the Light, where 
they may stand separated from that which disordereth 
and confuseth the Affairs of Society, and where we may 
have a Testimony of our Innocence in the Hearts of those 
who behold us." 

We conclude with fervent Desires that we, as a People, 
may thus, by our Example, promote the Lord's Work in 
the Earth; and, our Hearts being prepared, may unite 
in Prayer to the great Lord of the Harvest, that as, in 
his infinite Wisdom, he hath greatly stripped the Church, 
by removing of late divers faithful Ministers and Elders, 
he may be pleased to send forth many more faithful 
Labourers into his Harvest. 

Signed in, by Order, and on Behalf of, said Meeting : 

Thomas Bennett, Samuel Briscoe, 

John Storr, John Turner, 

Joseph Eglin, Joshua Robinson, 

Thomas Perkinson, Thomas Priestman, and 
Joseph Wright, divers other Friends. 




Held in Burlington, the first Day of the eighth Month, in 
the Year of our Lord i'j'j4, concerning our esteemed 

JOHN WOOLMAN, deceased 

He was born in Northampton, in the County of Burlington, 
and Province of West-New- Jersey, in the eighth Month, 
1720, of rehgious Parents, who instructed him very early 
in the Principles of the Christian Religion, as professed by 
the People called Quakers, which he esteemed a Blessing 
to him, even in his young Years, tending to preserve him 
from the Infection of wicked Children; but, through the 
Workings of the Enemy, and Levity incident to Youth, 
he frequently deviated from those parental Precepts, 
by which he laid a renewed Foundation for Repentance, 
that was finally succeeded by a godly Sorrow not to be 
repented of, and so became acquainted with that sanctify- 
ing Power which qualifies for true Gospel Ministry, into 
which he was called about the twenty-second year of his 
Age; and, by a faithful Use of the Talents committed to 
him, he experienced an Increase, until he arrived at the 
State of a Father, capable of dividing the Word aright 
to the different States he ministered unto; dispensing 
Milk to Babes, and Meat to those of riper Years. Thus 
he found the Efficacy of that Power to arise, which, in his 
own Expressions, " prepares the Creature to stand like 
a Trumpet through which the Lord speaks to his People." 


lo John Woolman's Journal 

— He was a loving Husband, a tender Father, and very 
humane to every Part of the Creation under his Care. 

His Concern for the Poor and those in Affliction was 
evident by his Visits to them; whom he frequently 
relieved by his Assistance and Charity. He was for many 
Years deeply exercised on Account of the poor enslaved 
Africans, whose Cause, as he sometimes mentioned, lay 
almost continually upon him, and to obtain Liberty to 
those Captives, he laboured both in public and private; 
and was favoured to see his Endeavours crowned with 
considerable Success. He was particularly desirous that 
Friends should not be instrumental to lay Burthens on 
this oppressed People, but remember the Days of suffer- 
ing from which they had been providentially delivered; 
that, if Times of Trouble should return, no Injustice dealt 
to those in Slavery might rise in Judgment against us, 
but, being clear, we might on such Occasions address the 
Almighty with a degree of Confidence, for his Inter- 
position and Relief; being particularly careful, as to 
himself, not to countenance Slavery even by the Use of 
those Conveniences of Life which were furnished by their 

He was desirous to have his own, and the Minds of 
others, redeemed from the Pleasures and immoderate 
Profits of this World, and to fix them on those Joys 
which fade not away; his principal Care being after a 
Life of Purity, endeavouring to avoid not only the grosser 
Pollutions, but those also which, appearing in a more 
refined Dress, are not sufficiently guarded against by 
some well-disposed People. In the latter Part of his 
Life he was remarkable for the Plainness and Simplicity of 
his Dress, and, as much as possible, avoided the Use of 
Plate, costly Furniture, and feasting; thereby endeavour- 
ing to become an Example of Temperance and Self-denial, 
which he believed himself called unto, and was favoured 
with Peace therein, although it carried the Appearance 
of great Austerity in the View of some. He was very 
moderate in his Charges in the Way of Business, and in 
his Desires after Gain; and, though a Man of Industry, 
avoided, and strove much to lead others out of extreme 

John Woolman's Journal 1 1 

Labour and Anxiousness after perishable Things; being 
desirous that the Strength of our Bodies might not be 
spent in procuring Things unprofitable, and that we 
might use Moderation and Kindness to the brute Animals 
under our Care, to prize the Use of them as a great 
Favour, and by no Means abuse them; that the Gifts of 
Providence should be thankfully received and applied to 
the Uses they were designed for. 

He several Times opened a School at Mount-Holly, for 
the Instruction of poor Friends Children and others, being 
concerned for their Help and Improvement therein: His 
Love and Care for the rising Youth among us were truly 
great, recommending to Parents and those who have the 
Charge of them, to chuse conscientious and pious Tutors, 
saying, " It is a lovely Sight to behold innocent Children," 
and that " to labour for their Help against that which 
would mar the Beauty of their Minds, is a Debt we owe 

His Ministry was sound, very deep and penetrating, 
sometimes pointing out the dangerous Situation which 
Indulgence and Custom lead into; frequently exhorting 
others, especially the Youth, not to be discouraged at the 
Difficulties which occur, but press after Purity. He often 
expressed an earnest Engagement that pure Wisdom 
should be attended to, which would lead into Lowliness 
of Mind and Resignation to the divine Will, in which 
State small Possessions here would be sufficient. 

In transacting the Affairs of Discipline, his Judgment 
was sound and clear, and he was very useful in treating 
with those who had done amiss; he visited such in a 
private Way in that Plainness which Truth dictates, 
shewing great Tenderness and Christian Forbearance. 
He was a constant Attender of our Yearly-meeting, in 
which he was a good Example, and particularly useful; 
assisting in the Business thereof with great Weight and 
Attention. He several Times visited most of the Meetings 
of Friends in this and the neighbouring Provinces, with 
the Concurrence of the Monthly-meeting to which he 
belonged, and, we have Reason to believe, had good 
Service therein, generally or always expressing, at his 
c 402 

12 John Woolman's Journal 

Return, how it had fared with him, and the Evidence of 
Peace in his Mind for thus performing his Duty. He was 
often concerned with other Friends in the important 
Service of visiting Families, which he was enabled to go 
through to Satisfaction. 

In the Minutes of the Meeting of Ministers and Elders 
for this Quarter, at the Foot of a List of the Members of 
that Meeting, made about five Years before his Death, 
we find in his Hand-writing the following Observations 
and Reflections. " As looking over the Minutes, made 
by Persons who have put ofl this Body, hath sometimes 
revived in me a Thought how Ages pass away; so this 
List may probably revive a like Thought in some, when 
I and the rest of the Persons above-named are centered 
in another State of Being. — The Lord, who was the Guide 
of my Youth, hath in tender Mercies helped me hitherto ; 
he hath healed me of Wounds, he hath helped me out of 
grievous Entanglements; he remains to be the Strength 
of my Life; to whom I desire to devote myself in Time 
and in Eternity." — Signed, John Woolman. 

In the twelfth Month, 1 771, he acquainted this Meeting 
that he found his Mind drawn towards a religious Visit 
to Friends in some Parts of England, particularly in York- 
shire. In the first Month, 1772, he obtained our Certificate, 
which was approved and endorsed by our Quarterly-meet- 
ing, and by the Half-year's-meeting of Ministers and Elders 
at Philadelphia. He embarked on his Voyage in the fifth, 
and arrived in London in the sixth. Month following, at 
the Time of their annual Meeting in that City. During 
his short Visit to Friends in that Kingdom, we are in- 
formed that his Services were acceptable and edifying. 
In his last Illness he uttered many lively and comfortable 
Expressions, being " perfectly resigned, having no Will 
either to live or die," as appears by the Testimony of 
Friends at York in Great-Britain, in the Suburbs whereof, 
at the House of our Friend, Thomas Priesiman, he died 
of the Small-pox, on the seventh Day of the tenth Month, 
1772, and was buried in Friends Burying-ground in that 
City, on the ninth of the same, after a large and solid 
Meeting held on the Occasion at their great Meeting- 

John Woolman's Journal 1 3 

house, aged near fifty-two Years; a Minister upwards of 
thirty Years, during which Time he belonged to Mount- 
Holly Particular-meeting, which he diligently attended 
when at Home and in Health of Body, and his Labours of 
Love, and pious Care for the Prosperity of Friends in the 
blessed Truth, we hope may not be forgotten, but that 
his good Works may be remembered to Edification. 

Signed in, and by Order of, the said Meeting, by 

Samuel Allinson, Clerk. 

Read and approved at our Quarterly-meeting, held at 
Burlington the 29th of the eighth Month, 1774. 

Signed, by Order of said Meeting, 

Daniel Smith, Clerk. 











Late of Mount-Holly, in the Province of 

Isaiah xxxii. 17. 

" The Work of Righteousness shall be Peace; and 
the Effect of Righteousness, Quietness and 
Assurance for ever." 


Printed and sold by James Phillips, in 
George- Yard, Lombard-Street. 







In the Service of the Gospel 


His Birth and Parentage, with some Account of the Operations 
of divine Grace on his Mind in his Youth — His first 
Appearance in the Ministry — And his Considerations, 
while young, on the keeping of Slaves 

I HAVE often felt a Motion of Love to leave some Hints 
in Writing of my Experience of the Goodness of God ; and 
now, in the thirty-sixth Year of my Age, I begin this 

I was bom in Northampton, in Burlington County, West- 
Jersey, in the Year 1720; and before I was seven Years 
old I began to be acquainted with the Operations of divine 
Love. Through the Care of my Parents, I was taught 
to read nearly as soon as I was capable of it; and, as I 
went from School one seventh Day, I remember, while 
my Companions went to play by the Way, I went forward 
out of Sight, and, sitting down, I read the 22d Chapter 
of the Revelations : "He shewed me a pure River of 
Water of Life, clear as Chrystal, proceeding out of the 
Throne of God and of the Lamb, etc." and, in reading it, 
my Mind was drawn to seek after that pure Habitation, 
which, I then believed, God had prepared for his Servants. 


1 8 John Woolman's Journal 

The Place where I sat, and the Sweetness that attended 
my Mind, remain fresh in my Memory. 

This, and the Hke gracious Visitations, had that Effect 
upon me, that when Boys used ill Language it troubled 
me; and, through the continued Mercies of God, I was 
preserved from it. 

The pious Instructions of my Parents were often fresh 
in my Mind when I happened to be among wicked 
Children, and were of Use to me. My Parents, having a 
large Family of Children, used frequently, on first Days 
after Meeting, to put us to read in the holy Scriptures, 
or some religious Books, one after another, the rest sitting 
by without much Conversation; which, I have since 
often thought, was a good Practice. From what I had 
read and heard, I believed there had been, in past Ages, 
People who walked in Uprightness before God, in a 
Degree exceeding any that I knew, or heard of, now 
living: And the Apprehension of there being less Steadi- 
ness and Firmness, amongst People in this Age than in 
past Ages, often troubled me while I was a Child. 

A Thing remarkable in my Childhood was, that once, 
going to a Neighbour's House, I saw, on the Way, a 
Robin sitting on her Nest, and as I came near she went 
off, but, having young ones, flew about, and with many 
Cries expressed her Concern for them; I stood and threw 
Stones at her, till, one striking her, she fell down dead: 
At first I was pleased with the Exploit, but after a few 
Minutes was seized with Horror, as having, in a sportive 
Way, killed an innocent Creature while she was careful 
for her Young: I beheld her lying dead, and thought 
these young ones, for which she was so careful, must 
now perish for want of their Dam to nourish them; and, 
after some painful Considerations on the Subject, I 
climbed up the Tree, took all the young Birds, and 
killed them; supposing that better than to leave them 
to pine away and die miserably: And believed, in this 
Case, that Scripture-proverb was fulfilled, " The tender 
Mercies of the Wicked are cruel." I then went on my 
Errand, but, for some Hours, could think of little else 
but the Cruelties I had committed, and was much 

John Woolman's Journal 1 9 

troubled. Thus he, whose tender Mercies are over all 
his Works, hath placed a Principle in the human Mind, 
which incites to exercise Goodness towards every living 
Creature; and this being singly attended to, People 
become tender hearted and sympathising; but being 
frequently and totally rejected, the Mind becomes shut 
up in a contrary Disposition. 

About the twelfth Year of my Age, my Father being 
abroad, my Mother reproved me for some Misconduct, 
to which I made an undutiful Reply; and, the next 
first Day, as I was with my Father returning from Meet- 
ing, he told me he understood I had behaved amiss to 
my Mother, and advised me to be more careful in future. 
I knew myself blameable, and in Shame and Confusion 
remained silent. Being thus awakened to a Sense of my 
Wickedness, I felt Remorse in my Mind, and, getting 
home, I retired and prayed to the Lord to forgive me; 
and do not remember that I ever, after that, spoke un- 
handsomely to either of my Parents, however foolish in 
some other Things. 

Having attained the Age of sixteen Years, I began to 
love wanton Company ; and though I was preserved from 
prophane Language, or scandalous Conduct, still I per- 
ceived a Plant in me which produced much wild Grapes; 
yet my merciful Father forsook me not utterly, but, at 
Times, through his Grace, I was brought seriously to 
consider my Ways; and the Sight of my Backslidings 
affected me with Sorrow; but, for want of rightly attend- 
ing to the Reproofs of Instruction, Vanity was added to 
Vanity, and Repentance to Repentance : Upon the whole, 
my Mind was more and more alienated from the Truth, 
and I hastened toward Destruction. While I meditate 
on the Gulph towards which I travelled, and reflect on 
my youthful Disobedience, for these Things I weep, mine 
Eyes run down with Water. 

Advancing in Age, the Number of my Acquaintances 
increased, and thereby my Way grew more difficult; 
though I had found Comfort in reading the holy Scrip- 
tures, and thinking on heavenly Things, I was now 
estranged therefrom: I knew I was going from the Flock 

20 John Woolman's Journal 

of Christ, and had no Resolution to return; hence serious 
Reflections were uneasy to me, and youthful Vanities 
and Diversions my greatest Pleasure. Running in this 
Road I found many like myself; and we associated in 
that which is the reverse of true Friendship. 

But in this swift Race it pleased God to visit me with 
Sickness, so that I doubted of recovering; and then did 
Darkness, Horror, and Amazement, with full Force, seize 
me, even when my Pain and Distress of Body was very 
great. I thought it would have been better for me never 
to have had a Being, than to see the Day which I now 
saw. I was filled with Confusion; and in great Affliction, 
both of Mind and Body, I lay and bewailed myself. I 
had not Confidence to lift up my Cries to God, whom 
I had thus offended ; but, in a deep Sense of my great 
Folly, I was humbled before him; and, at length, that 
Word which is as a Fire and a Hammer, broke and dis- 
solved my rebellious Heart, and then my Cries were put 
up in Contrition; and in the multitude of his Mercies I 
found inward Relief, and felt a close Engagement, that, 
if he was pleased to restore my Health, I might walk 
humbly before him. 

After my Recovery, this Exercise remained with me 
a considerable Time; but, by Degrees, giving Way to 
youthful Vanities, they gained Strength, and, getting with 
wanton young People, I lost Ground. The Lord had 
been very gracious, and spoke Peace to me in the Time 
of my Distress; and I now most ungratefully turned 
again to Folly; on which Account, at Times, I felt sharp 
Reproof. I was not so hardy as to commit Things scan- 
dalous; but to exceed in Vanity, and promote Mirth, 
was my chief Study. Still I retained a Love for pious 
People, and their Company brought an Awe upon me. 
My dear Parents, several Times, admonished me in the 
Fear of the Lord, and their Admonition entered into my 
Heart, and had a good Effect for a Season; but, not 
getting deep enough to pray rightly, the Tempter, when 
he came, found Entrance. I remember once, having 
spent a Part of the Day in Wantonness, as I went to 
Bed at Night, there lay in a Window, near my Bed, a 

John Woolman's Journal 2 1 

Bible, which I opened, and first cast my Eye on this 
Text, " We lie down in our Shame, and our Confusion 
covers us: " This I knew to be my Case; and, meeting 
with so unexpected a Reproof, I was somewhat affected 
with it, and went to Bed under Remorse of Conscience; 
which I soon cast off again. 

Thus Time passed on: My Heart was replenished with 
Mirth and Wantonness, and pleasing Scenes of Vanity 
were presented to my Imagination, till I attained the Age 
of eighteen Years ; near which Time I felt the Judgments 
of God, in my Soul, like a consuming Fire; and, looking 
over my past Life, the Prospect was moving. — I was 
often sad, and longed to be delivered from those Vanities ; 
then again, my Heart was strongly inclined to them, and 
there was in me a sore Conflict: At Times I turned to 
Folly, and then again. Sorrow and Confusion took hold of 
me. In a while, I resolved totally to leave off some of 
my Vanities; but there was a secret Reserve, in my 
Heart, of the more refined Part of them, and I was not 
low enough to find true Peace. Thus, for some Months, 
I had great Troubles; there remaining in me an unsub- 
jected Will, which rendered my Labours fruitless, till at 
length, through the merciful Continuance of heavenly 
Visitations, I was made to bow down in Spirit before the 
Lord. I remember one Evening I had spent some Time 
in reading a pious Author; and walking out alone, I 
humbly prayed to the Lord for his Help, that I might be 
delivered from all those Vanities which so ensnared me. 
Thus, being brought low, he helped me ; and, as I learned 
to bear the Cross, I felt Refreshment to come from his 
Presence; but, not keeping in that Strength which gave 
Victory, I lost Ground again; the Sense of which greatly 
affected me; and I sought Desarts and lonely Places, and 
there, with Tears, did confess my Sins to God, and 
humbly craved Help of him. And I may say with 
Reverence, he was near to me in my Troubles, and in 
those Times of Humiliation opened my Ear to Discipline. 
I was now led to look seriously at the Means by which I 
was drawn from the pure Truth, and learned this, that, 
if I would live in the Life which the faithful Servants of 

22 John Woolman's Journal 

God lived in, I must not go into Company as heretofore 
in my own Will; but all the Cravings of Sense must be 
governed by a divine Principle. In Times of Sorrow and 
Abasement these Instructions were sealed upon me, and 
I felt the Power of Christ prevail over selfish Desires, so 
that I was preserved in a good degree of Steadiness ; and, 
being young, and believing at that Time that a single 
Life was best for me, I was strengthened to keep from 
such Company as had often been a Snare to me. 

I kept steadily to Meetings; spent First-day After- 
noons chiefly in reading the Scriptures and other good 
Books; and was early convinced in Mind, that true 
Religion consisted in an inward Life, wherein the Heart 
doth love and reverence God the Creator, and learns to 
exercise true Justice and Goodness, not only toward all 
Men, but also toward the brute Creatures. — That as the 
Mind was moved, by an inward Principle, to love God as 
an invisible incomprehensible Being, by the same Prin- 
ciple it was moved to love him in all his Manifestations 
in the visible World. — That, as by his Breath the Flame 
of Life was kindled in all animal sensible Creatures, to 
say we love God, and, at the same Time exercise Cruelty 
toward the least Creature, is a Contradiction in itself. 

I found no Narrowness respecting Sects and Opinions; 
but believed, that sincere upright-hearted People, in every 
Society, who truly love God, were accepted of him. 

As I lived under the Cross, and simply followed the 
Openings of Truth, my Mind, from Day to Day, was more 
enlightened; my former Acquaintance were left to judge 
of me as they would, for I found it safest for me to live 
in private, and keep these Things sealed up in my own 
Breast. While I silently ponder on that Change wrought 
in me, I find no Language equal to it, nor any Means to 
convey to another a clear Idea of it. I looked on the 
Works of God in this visible Creation, and an Awfulness 
covered me; my Heart was tender and often contrite, 
and universal Love to my Fellow-creatures increased in 
me: This will be understood by such as have trodden 
the same Path. Some Glances of real Beauty may be 
seen in their Faces, who dwell in true Meekness. There 

John Woolman's Journal 23 

is a Harmony in the Sound of that Voice to which divine 
Love gives Utterance, and some Appearance of right 
Order in their Temper and Conduct, whose Passions are 
regulated; yet all these do not fully shew forth that 
inward Life to such as have not felt it: But this white 
Stone and new Name is known rightly to such only as 
have it. 

Though I had been thus strengthened to bear the 
Cross, I still found myself in great Danger, having many 
Weaknesses attending me, and strong Temptations to 
wrestle with; in the feeling whereof I frequently with- 
drew into private Places, and often with Tears besought 
the Lord to help me, whose gracious Ear was open to 
my Cry. 

All this Time I lived with my Parents, and wrought on 
the Plantation; and, having had Schooling pretty well 
for a Planter, I used to improve it in Winter Evenings, 
and other leisure Times; and, being now in the twenty- 
first Year of my Age, a Man, in much Business at shop- 
keeping and baking, asked me, if I would hire with him 
to tend Shop and keep Books. I acquainted my Father 
with the Proposal; and, after some Deliberation, it was 
agreed for me to go. 

At Home I had lived retired; and now, having a 
Prospect of being much in the Way of Com.pany, I felt 
frequent and fervent Cries in my Heart to God, the 
Father of Mercies, that he would preserve me from all 
Corruption; that in this more publick Employment, I 
might serve him, my gracious Redeemer, in that Humility 
and Self-denial, with which I had been, in a small Degree, 
exercised in a more private Life. The Man, who employed 
me, furnished a Shop in Mount-Holly, about five Miles 
from my Father's House, and six from his own; and 
there I lived alone, and tended his Shop. Shortly after 
my Settlement here I was visited by several young People, 
my former Acquaintance, who knew not but Vanities 
would be as agreeable to me now as ever; and, at these 
Times, I cried to the Lord in secret, for Wisdom and 
Strength; for I felt myself encompassed with Difficulties, 
and had fresh Occasion to bewail the Follies of Time past, 

24 John Woolman's Journal 

in contracting a Familiarity with libertine People; and, 
as I had now left my Father's House outwardly, I found 
my heavenly Father to be merciful to me beyond what 
I can express. 

By Day I was much amongst People, and had many 
Trials to go through; but, in the Evenings, I was mostly 
alone, and may with Thankfulness acknowledge, that, 
in those Times, the Spirit of Supplication was often 
poured upon me; under which I was frequently exercised, 
and felt my Strength renewed. 

In a few Months after I came here, my Master bought 
several Scotchmen, Servants, from on-board a Vessel, and 
brought them to Mount-Holly to sell; one of which was 
taken sick, and died. 

In the latter Part of his Sickness, he, being delirious, 
used to curse and swear most sorrowfully; and, the next 
Night after his Burial, I was left to sleep alone in the 
same Chamber where he died; I perceived in me a 
Timorousness; I knew, however, I had not injured the 
Man, but assisted in taking Care of him according to my 
Capacity; and was not free to ask any one, on that 
Occasion, to sleep with me: Nature was feeble ; but every 
Trial was a fresh Incitement to give myself up wholly to 
the Service of God, for I found no Helper like him in 
Times of Trouble. 

After a While, my former Acquaintance gave over 
expecting me as one of their Company; and I began to 
be known to some whose Conversation was helpful to me : 
And now, as I had experienced the Love of God, through 
Jesus Christ, to redeem me from many Pollutions, and 
to be a Succour to me through a Sea of Conflicts, with 
which no Person was fully acquainted; and as my Heart 
was often enlarged in this heavenly Principle, I felt a 
tender Compassion for the Youth, who remained en- 
tangled in Snares, like those which had entangled me 
from one Time to another: This Love and Tenderness 
increased; and my Mind was more strongly engaged for 
the Good of my Fellow-creatures. I went to Meetings in 
an awful Frame of Mind, and endeavoured to be inwardly 
acquainted with the Language of the true Shepherd ; and, 

John Woolman's Journal 25 

one Day, being under a strong Exercise of Spirit, I stood 
up, and said some Words in a Meeting; but, not keeping 
close to the divine Opening, I said more than was required 
of me; and being soon sensible of my Error, I was afflicted 
in Mind some Weeks, without any Light or Comfort, even 
to that Degree that I could not take Satisfaction in any 
Thing: I remembered God, and was troubled, and, in the 
Depth of my Distress, he had Pity upon me, and sent 
the Comforter: I then felt Forgiveness for my Offence, 
and my Mind became calm and quiet, being truly thank- 
ful to my gracious Redeemer for his Mercies; and, after 
this, feeling the Spring of divine Love opened, and a 
Concern to speak, I said a few Words in a Meeting, in 
which I found Peace; this, I believe, was about six Weeks 
from the first Time: And, as I was thus humbled and 
disciplined under the Cross, my Understanding became 
more strengthened to distinguish the pure Spirit which 
inwardly moves upon the Heart, and taught me to wait 
in Silence sometimes many Weeks together, until I felt 
that rise which prepares the Creature. 

From an inward purifying, and stedfast abiding under 
it, springs a lively operative Desire for the Good of others : 
All the Faithful are not called to the public Ministry; 
but whoever are, are called to minister of that which 
they have tasted and handled spiritually. The outward V/ 

Modes of Worship are various; but, wherever any are 
true Ministers of Jesus Christ, it is from the Operation of 
his Spirit upon their Hearts, first purifying them, and 
thus giving them a just Sense of the Conditions of others. 

This Truth was clearly fixed in my Mind; and I was 
taught to watch the pure Opening, and to take Heed, 
lest, while I was standing to speak, my own Will should \y 
get uppermost, and cause me to utter Words from worldly 
Wisdom, and depart from the Channel of the true Gospel- 

In the Management of my outward Affairs, I may say, 
with Thankfulness, I found Truth to be my Support; 
and I was respected in my Master's Family, who came 
to live in Mount-Holly within two Years after my going 

26 John Woolman's Journal 

About the twenty-third Year of my Age, I had many 
fresh and heavenly Openings, in respect to the Care and 
Providence of the Almighty over his Creatures in general, 
and over Man as the most noble amongst those which 
•are visible. And being clearly convinced in my Judg- 
ment, that to place my whole Trust in God was best for 
me, I felt renewed Engagements, that in all Things I 
might act on an inward Principle of Virtue, and pursue 
worldly Business no farther, than as Truth opened my 
Way therein. 

About the Time called Christmas, I observed many 
People from the Country, and Dwellers in Town, who, 
resorting to Public-Houses, spent their Time in drinking 
and vain Sports, tending to corrupt one another; on 
which Account I was much troubled. At one House, in 
particular, there was much Disorder; and I believed it 
was a Duty incumbent on me to go and speak to the 
Master of that House. I considered I was young, and 
that several elderly Friends in town had Opportunity to 
see these Things; but though I would gladly have been 
•excused, yet I could not feel my Mind clear. 

The Exercise was heavy; and as I was reading what 
the Almighty said to Ezekiel, respecting his Duty as a 
Watchman, the Matter was set home more clearly ; and 
then, with Prayers and Tears, I besought the Lord for his 
Assistance, who, in Loving-kindness, gave me a resigned 
Heart: Then, at a suitable Opportunity, I went to the 
Public-house, and, seeing the Man amongst much Com- 
pany, I went to him, and told him, I wanted to speak 
with him ; so we went aside, and there, in the Fear of the 
Almighty, I expressed to him what rested on my Mind; 
which he took kindly, and afterward shewed more Regard 
to me than before. In a few Years afterwards he died, 
middle-aged; and I often thought that, had I neglected 
my Duty in that Case, it would have given me great 
Trouble; and I was humbly thankful to my gracious 
Father, who had supported me herein. 

My Employer having a Negro Woman, sold her, and 
desired me to write a Bill of Sale, the Man being waiting 
who bought her: The Thing was sudden; and, though 

John Woolman's Journal 27 

the Thoughts of writing an Instrument of Slavery for one 
of my Fellow-creatures felt uneasy, yet I remembered I 
was hired by the Year, that it was my Master who directed 
me to do it, and that it was an elderly Man, a Member of 
our Society, who bought her; so, through Weakness, I 
gave way, and wrote; but, at the executing it, I was so 
afflicted in my Mind, that I said, before my Master and 
the Friend, that I believed Slave-keeping to be a Practice 
inconsistent with the Christian Religion: This in some 
Degree abated my Uneasiness; yet, as often as I reflected 
seriously upon it, I thought I should have been clearer, 
if I had desired to have been excused from it, as a Thing 
against my Conscience; for such it was. And, some 
Time after this, a young Man, of our Society, spoke to 
me to write a Conveyance of a Slave to him, he having 
lately taken a Negro into his House: I told him I was 
not easy to write it; for, though many of our Meeting 
and in other Places kept Slaves, I still believed the 
Practice was not right, and desired to be excused from 
the writing. I spoke to him in Good- will; and he told 
me that keeping Slaves was not altogether agreeable to 
his Mind; but that the Slave being a Gift to his Wife^ he 
had accepted of her. 

D 402 


His first Journey, on a religious Visit, into East- Jersey, in 
Company with Abraham Farrington — His Thoughts on 
merchandizing, and his learning a Trade — His second 
Journey, with Isaac Andrews, into Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Virginia, and North Carolina — His third Journey, 
with Peter Andrews, through Part of West and East- 
Jersey — Some Account of his Sister Elizabeth, and her 
Death — His fourth Journey, with Peter Andrews, 
through New-York and Long-Island, to New-England — 
And his fifth Journey, with John Sykes, to the eastern 
Shore of Marj^-land, and the lower Counties on Delaware 

My esteemed Friend^ Abraham Farrington, being about 
to make a Visit to Friends on the eastern Side of this 
Province, and having no Companion, he proposed to me to 
go with him; and, after a Conference with some elderly 
Friends, I agreed to go: We set out the fifth Day of the 
ninth Month, in the Year 1743; had an Evening-meeting 
at a Tavern in Brunswick, a Town in which none of our 
Society dwelt; the Room was full, and the People quiet. 
Thence to Amboy, and had an Evening-meeting in the 
Court-house; to which many People came, amongst 
whom were several Members of the Assembly, they being 
in Town on public Affairs of the Province: In both these 
Meetings my ancient Companion was enlarged to preach, 
in the Love of the Gospel. Thence we went to Wood- 
bridge, Raway, and Plai?tfield ; and had six or seven 
Meetings in Places where Meetings of Friends are not 
usually held, being made up chiefly of Presbyterians ; and 
my beloved Companion was frequently strengthened to 
publish the Word of Life amongst them: As for me, I 
was often silent; and, when I spake, it was with much 
Care, that I might speak only what Truth opened: And 
I learned some profitable Lessons. — We were out about 
two Weeks. 

Near this Time, being on some outward Business in 


John Woolman's Journal 29 

which several Families were concerned, and which was 
attended with Difficulties, some Things relating thereto 
not being clearly stated, nor rightly understood by all, 
there arose some Heat in the Minds of the Parties, and 
one valuable Friend got off his Watch; I had a great 
Regard for him, and felt a strong Inclination, after 
Matters were settled, to speak to him concerning his 
Conduct in that case: But I being a Youth, and he far 
advanced in Age and Experience, my Way appeared 
difficult; but, after some Days Deliberation, and inward 
seeking to the Lord for Assistance, I was made subject; 
so that I expressed what lay upon me in a Way which 
became my Youth and his Years: And, though it was a 
hard Task to me, it was well taken, and, I believe, useful 
to us both. 

Having now been several Years with my Employer, 
and he doing less at Merchandize than heretofore, I was 
thoughtful of some other Way of Business; perceiving 
Merchandize to be attended with much Cumber, in the 
Way of trading in these Parts. 

My mind, through the Power of Truth, was in a good 
degree weaned from the Desire of outward Greatness, 
and I was learning to be content with real Conveniences, 
that were not costly; so that a Way of Life, free from 
much Entanglement, appeared best for me, though the 
Income might be small. I had several Offers of Business 
that appeared profitable, but did not see my Way clear 
to accept of them; as believing the Business proposed 
would be attended with more outward Care than was 
required of me to engage in. 

I saw that a humble Man, with the blessing of the Lord, 
might live on a little; and that where the Heart was set 
on Greatness, Success in Business did not satisfy the 
craving; but that commonly, with an Increase of Wealth, 
the Desire of Wealth increased. There was a Care on 
my Mind so to pass my Time, that nothing might hinder 
me from the most steady Attention to the Voice of the 
true Shepherd. 

My Employer, though now a Retailer of Goods, was by 
Trade a Taylor, and kept a Servant-man at that Busi- 

30 John Woolman's Journal 

ness; and I began to think about learning the Trade, 
expecting that, if I should settle, I might, by this Trade 
and a little retailing of Goods, get a Living in a plain 
Way, without the Load of great Business: I mentioned 
it to my Employer, and we soon agreed on Terms; and 
then, when I had Leisure from the Affairs of Merchandize, 
I worked with his Man. I believed the Hand of Provi- 
dence pointed out this Business for me; and was taught 
to be content with it, though I felt, at Times, a Disposi- 
tion that would have sought for something greater: But, 
through the Revelation of Jesus Christ, I had seen the 
Happiness of Humility, and there was an earnest Desire 
in me to enter deep into it; and, at Times, this Desire 
arose to a Degree of fervent Supplication, wherein my 
Soul was so environed with heavenly Light and Consola- 
tion, that Things were made easy to me which had been 

After some Time, my Employer's Wife died; she was 
a virtuous Woman, and generally beloved of her Neigh- 
bours; and, soon after this, he left shop-keeping, and we 
parted. I then wrought at my Trade, as a Taylor; care- 
fully attended Meetings for Worship and Discipline; and 
found an Enlargement of Gospel-love in my Mind, and 
therein a Concern to visit Friends in some of the Back- 
settlements of Pennsylvania and Virginia; and, being 
thoughtful about a Companion, I expressed it to my 
beloved Friend, Isaac Andrews, who then told me that 
he had Drawings to the same Places; also to go through 
Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina. After considerable 
Time past, and several Conferences with him, I felt easy 
to accompany him throughout, if Way opened for it. I 
opened the Case in our Monthly-meeting; and, Friends 
expressing their Unity therewith, we obtained Certificates 
to travel as Companions ; his from Haddonfield, and mine 
from Burlington. 

We left our Province on the twelfth Day of the third 
Month, in the Year 1746, and had several Meetings in the 
upper Part of Chester County, and near Lancaster; in 
some of which, the Love of Christ prevailed, uniting us 
together in his Service. Then we crossed the River 

John Woolman's Journal 3 1 

SusqueJiannah, and had several Meetings in a new Settle- 
ment, called the Red-Lands ; the oldest of which, as I 
was informed, did not exceed ten Years. It is the poorer 
Sort of People that commonly begin to improve remote 
Desarts: With a small Stock they have Houses to build, 
Lands to clear and fence. Com to raise, Clothes to provide, 
and Children to educate; that Friends, who visit such, 
may well sympathise with them in their Hardships in the 
Wilderness ; and though the best Entertainment such can 
give may seem coarse to some who are used to Cities, or 
old settled Places, it becomes the Disciples of Christ to 
be content with it. Our Hearts were sometimes enlarged 
in the Love of our heavenly Father amongst these People ; 
and the sweet Influence of his Spirit supported us through 
some Difficulties : To him be the Praise ! 

We passed on to Monoquacy, Fairfax, Hopewell, and 
Shanando, and had Meetings; some of which were com- 
fortable and edifying. From Shanando we set off in the 
Afternoon for the old Settlements of Friends in Virginia ; 
and, the first Night, we, with our Pilot, lodged in the 
Woods, our Horses feeding near us; but he being poorly 
provided with a Horse, and we young and having good 
Horses, were free the next Day to part with him; and 
did so. In two Days after, we reached to our Friend 
]ohn Cheagle's, in Virginia ; so we took the Meetings in 
our Way through Virginia ; were, in some Degree, bap- 
tized into a feeling Sense of the Conditions of the People ; 
and our Exercise in general was more painful in these old 
Settlements, than it had been amongst the back Inhabi- 
tants : But, through the Goodness of our heavenly Father, 
the Well of living Waters was, at Times, opened to our 
Encouragement and the Refreshment of the sincere- 
hearted. We went on to Perquimons, in North-Carolina, 
had several Meetings, which were large, and found some 
Openness in those Parts, and a hopeful Appearance 
amongst the young People. So we turned again to Vir- 
ginia, and attended most of the Meetings which we had 
not been at before, labouring amongst Friends in the 
Love of Jesus Christ, as Ability was given; and thence 
went to the Mountains, up James-River, to a new Settle- 

32 John Woolman's Journal 

ment, and had several Meetings amongst the People, 
some of whom had lately joined in Membership with our 

In our journeying to and fro, we found some honest- 
hearted Friends^ who appeared to be concerned for the 
Cause of Truth among a backsliding People. 

From Virginia, we crossed over the River Patowmac, 
at Hoe's Ferry^ and made a general Visit to the Meetings 
of Friends on the Western Shore of Maryland ; and were 
at their Quarterly-meeting. We had some hard Labour 
amongst them, endeavouring to discharge our Duty 
honestly as Way opened, in the Love of Truth: And 
thence taking sundry Meetings in our Way, we passed 
homeward; where, through the Favour of divine Provi- 
dence we reached the sixteenth Day of the sixth Month, 
in the Year 1746; and I may say that, through the 
Assistance of the Holy Spirit, my Companion and I 
travelled in Harmony, and parted in the Nearness of true 
brotherly Love. 

-- Two Things were remarkable to me in this Journey; 
first, in Regard to my Entertainment, when I ate, drank, 
and lodged at free-cost, with People who lived in Ease on 
the hard Labour of their Slaves, I felt uneasy; and, as 
my Mind was inward to the Lord, I found, from Place to 
Place, this LTneasiness return upon me, at Times, through 
the whole Visit. Where the Masters bore a good Share 
of the Burthen, and lived frugally, so that their Servants 
were well provided for, and their Labour moderate, I felt 
more easy; but where they lived in a costly Way, and 
laid heavy Burthens on their Slaves, my Exercise was 
often great, and I frequently had Conversation with 
them, in private, concerning it. Secondly; this Trade 
of importing Slaves from their native Country being much 
encouraged amongst them, and the white People and 
their Children so generally living without much Labour, 
was frequently the Subject of my serious Thoughts: And 
I saw in these southern Provinces so many Vices and 
Corruptions, increased by this Trade and this Way of 
Life, that it appeared to me as a Gloom over the Land ; 
and though now many willingly run into it, yet, in future, 

John Woolman's Journal 33 

the Consequence will be grievous to Posterity: I express 
it as it hath appeared to me^ not at once nor twice^ but 
as a Matter fixed on my Mind. 

Soon after my Return Home^ I felt an increasing Con- 
cern for Friends on our Sea-coast; and^ on the eighth 
Day of the eighth Month, in the Year 1746, with the 
Unity of Friends, and in Company with my beloved 
Friend and Neighbour, Peter Andrews, Brother to my 
Companion before-mentioned, we set forward, and visited 
Meetings generally about Salem, Cape May, Great and 
Little Egg- Harbour ; and had Meetings at Barnagat, 
Mannahocking, and Mane-Squan, and so to the Yearly- 
meeting at Shrewsbury. Through the Goodness of the 
Lord Way was opened, and the Strength of divine 
Love was sometimes felt in our Assemblies, to the Com- 
fort and Help of those who were rightly concerned before 
him. We were out twenty-two Days, and rode, by Com- 
putation, three hundred and forty Miles. At Shrewsbury 
Yearly-meeting, we met with our dear Friends Michael 
LiGHTFOOT and Abraham Farrington, who had good 
Service there. 

The Winter following my eldest Sister, Elizabeth 
WooLMAN, jun. died of the Small-pox, aged thirty-one 
Years. She was, from her Youth, of a thoughtful Dis- 
position; and very compassionate to her Acquaintance 
in their Sickness or Distress, being ready to help as far 
as she could. She was dutiful to her Parents; one 
Instance whereof follows: — It happened that she, and 
two of her Sisters, being then near the Estate of young 
Women, had an Inclination, one First-day after Meeting, 
to go on a Visit to some other young Women at some 
Distance off; whose Company, I believe, would have 
done themi no Good. They expressed their Desire to our 
Parents; who were dissatisfied with the Proposal, and 
stopped them. The same Day, as my Sisters and I were 
together, and they talking about their Disappointment, 
Elizabeth expressed her Contentment under it; signifying, 
she believed it might be for their Good. 

A few Years after she attained to mature- Age, through 
the gracious Visitations of God's Love, she was strengthened 

34 John Woolman's Journal 

to live a self-denying exemplary Life, giving herself much 
to Reading and Meditation. 

The following Letter may shew, in some Degree, her 

Haddonfield, ist Day, nth Month, 1743. 

Beloved Brother, John Woolman, — In that Love 
which desires the Welfare of all Men, I write unto thee: 
I received thine, dated second Day of the tenth Month 
last, with which I was comforted. My Spirit is bowed 
with Thankfulness that I should be remembered, who am 
unworthy; but the Lord is full of Mercy, and his Good- 
ness is extended to the meanest of his Creation; there- 
fore, in his infinite Love, he hath pitied, and spared, and 
shewed Mercy, that I have not been cut off nor quite 
lost; but, at Times, I am refreshed and comforted as 
with the Glimpse of his Presence, which is more to the 
immortal Part, than all which this World can afford: So, 
with Desires for thy Preservation with my own, I remain 

Thy affectionate Sister, 

Eliz. Woolman, jun. 

In the fore Part of her Illness she was in great Sadness 
and Dejection of Mind, of which she told one of her 
intimate Friends, and said. When I was a young Girl I 
was wanton and airy, but I thought I had thoroughly 
repented of it; and added, I have of late had great 
Satisfaction in Meetings. Though she was thus dis- 
consolate, still she retained a Hope, which was as an 
Anchor to her: And sometime after, the same Friend 
came again to see her, to whom she mentioned her former 
Expressions, and said. It is otherwise now, for the Lord 
hath rewarded me seven fold; and I am unable to express 
the Greatness of his Love manifested to me. Her Dis- 
order appearing dangerous, and our Mother being sorrow- 
ful, she took Notice of it, and said. Dear Mother, weep 
not for me; I go to my God: And, many Times, with an 
audible Voice, uttered Praise to her Redeemer. 

A Friend, coming some Miles to see her the Morning 
before she died, asked her, how she did? She answered, 
I have had a hard Night, but shall not have another such. 

John Woolman's Journal 35 

for I shall die, and it will be well with my Soul; and 
accordingly died the next Evening. 

The following Ejaculations were found amongst her 
Writings ; written, I believe, at four Times : 

I. Oh ! that my Head were as Waters, and mine Eyes 
as a Fountain of Tears, that I might weep Day and 
Night, until acquainted with my God. 

II. Lord, that I may enjoy thy Presence! or else 
my Time is lost, and my Life a Snare to my Soul. 

III. Lord, that I may receive Bread from thy Table, 
and that thy Grace may abound in me ! 

IV. Lord, that I may be acquainted with thy Pre- 
sence, that I may be seasoned with thy Salt, that thy 
Grace may abound in me ! 

Of late I found Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends 
in New-England, and, having an Opportunity of joining 
in Company with my beloved Friend, Peter Andrews, 
we, having obtained Certificates from our Monthly-meet- 
ing, set forward on the sixteenth Day of the third 
Month, in the Year 1747, and reached the Yearly-meet- 
ing at Long-Island ; at which were our Friends Samuel 
Nottingham, from England, John Griffith, Jane 
HosKiNS, and Elizbeth Hudson, from Pennsylvania, 
and Jacob Andrews, from Chesterfield. Several of whom 
were favoured in their publick Exercise; and, through 
the Goodness of the Lord, we had some edifying Meetings. 
After this, my Companion and I visited Friends on Long- 
Island ; and, through the Mercies of God we were helped 
in the Work. 

Besides going to the settled Meetings of Friends, we 
were at a general Meeting at Setawket, chiefly made up 
of other Societies; and had a Meeting at Oyster-Bay 
in a Dwelling-house, at which were many People: At 
the first of which there was not much said by way of 
Testimony; but it was I believe, a good Meeting: At 
the latter, through the springing up of living Waters, it 
was a Day to be thankfully remembered. Having visited 
the Island, we went over to the Main, taking Meetings in 
our Way, to Oblong, Nine Partners, and New-Milford. — 
In these back Settlements we met with several People, 

36 John Woolman's Journal 

who, through the immediate Workings of the Spirit of 
Christ in their Minds, were drawn from the Vanities of 
the World, to an inward Acquaintance with him: They 
were educated in the Way of the Presbyterians. A con- 
siderable Number of the Youth, Members of that Society, 
used to spend their Time often together in merriment; 
but some of the principal young Men of that Company 
being visited by the powerful Workings of the Spirit of 
Christ, and thereby led humbly to take up his Cross, 
could no longer join in those Vanities; and, as these 
stood stedfast to that inward Convincement, they were 
made a Blessing to some of their former Companions; 
so that, through the Power of Truth, several were brought 
into a close Exercise concerning the eternal Well-being 
of their Souls. These young People continued for a Time 
to frequent their publick Worship; and, besides that, 
had Meetings of their own; which Meetings were a while 
allowed by their Preacher, who, sometimes, met with 
them: But, in Time, their Judgment, in Matters of 
Religion, disagreeing with some of the Articles of the 
Presbyterians, their Meetings were disapproved by that 
Society; and such of them as stood firm to their Duty, 
as it was inwardly manifested, had many Difficulties to 
go through. And their Meetings were in a while dropped; 
some of them returning to the Presbyterians ; and others 
of them, after a Time, joined our religious Society. I 
had Conversation with some of the latter, to my Help and 
Edification; and believe several of them are acquainted 
with the Nature of that Worship, which is performed in 
Spirit and in Truth. 

From hence, accompanied by Amos Powel, a Friend 
from hong-Island, we rode through Connecticut, chiefly 
inhabited by Presbyterians, who were generally civil to 
us; and, after three Days riding, we came amongst 
Friends in the Colony of Rhode-Island. We visited 
Friends in and about Newport, and Dartmouth, and 
generally in those Parts ; and then to Boston ; and pro- 
ceeded eastward as far as Dover ; and then returned to 
Newport; and, not far from thence, we met our Friend, 
Thomas Gawthrop, from England, who was then on a 

John Woolman's Journal 37 

Visit to these Provinces. From Newport we sailed to 
Nantucket; were there near a Week; and from thence 
came over to Dartmouth : And having finished our Visit 
in these Parts, we crossed the Sound from New-London to 
Long-Island ; and, taking some Meetings on the Island, 
proceeded homeward; where we reached the thirteenth 
Day of the seventh Month, in the Year 1747, having rode 
about fifteen hundred Miles, and sailed about one hundred 
and fifty. 

In this Journey, I may say, in general, we were some- 
times in much Weakness, and laboured under Discourage- 
ments; and at other Times, through the renewed Mani- 
festations of divine Love, we had seasons of Refreshment, 
wherein the Power of Truth prevailed. 

We were taught, by renewed Experience, to labour for 
an inward Stillness; at no Time to seek for Words, but 
to live in the Spirit of Truth, and utter that to the People 
which Truth opened in us. My beloved Companion and I 
belonged to one Meeting, came forth in the Ministry near 
the same Time, and were inwardly united in the Work; he 
was about thirteen Years older than I, bore the heaviest 
Burthen, and was an Instrument of the greatest Use. 

Finding a Concern to visit Friends in the lower Counties 
on Delaware, and on the eastern Shore of Maryland, and 
having an Opportunity to join with my well-beloved 
ancient Friend, John Sykes, we obtained Certificates, 
and set off the seventh Day of the eighth Month, in the 
Year 1748; were at the Meetings of Friends in the lower 
Counties, attended the Yearly-meeting at Little-Creek, 
and made a Visit to the chief of the Meetings on the 
eastern Shore; and so Home by Way of Nottingham : 
Were abroad about six Weeks, and rode, by Computation, 
about five hundred and fifty Miles. 

Our Exercise, at Times, was heavy; but, through the 
Goodness of the Lord, we were often refreshed; and I 
may say, by Experience, He is a strong Hold in the Day 
of Trouble. Though our Society, in these Parts, appeared 
to me to be in a declining Condition; yet, I believe, the 
Lord hath a People amongst them, who labour to serve 
him uprightly, but have many Difficulties to encounter. 


His Marriage — The Death of his Father — His Journies into 
the upper Part of New-Jersey, and afterwards into Penn- 
sylvania — Considerations on keeping Slaves, and his 
Visits to the Families of Friends at several Times and 
Places — An Epistle from the General Meeting — His 
Journey to Long-Island — Considerations on Trading, and 
on the Use of spirituous Liquors and costly Apparel — And 
his Letter to a Friend 

About this Time^ believing it good for me to settle, and 
thinking seriously about a Companion, my Heart was 
turned to the Lord with Desires that he would give me 
Wisdom to proceed therein agreeable to his Will; and 
fie was pleased to give me a well-inclined Damsel, Sarah 
Ellis; to whom I was married the eighteenth Day of 
the eighth Month, in the Year 1749. 

In the fall of the Year 1750 died my Father, Samuel 
WooLMAN, with a Fever, aged about sixty Years. 

In his Life-time he manifested much Care for us his 
Children, that in our Youth we might learn to fear the 
Lord; often endeavouring to imprint in our Minds the 
true Principles of Virtue, and particularly to cherish in 
us a Spirit of Tenderness, not only towards poor People, 
but also towards all Creatures of which we had the 

After my Return from Carolina, in the Year 1746, I 
made some Observations on keeping Slaves, which some 
Time before his Decease I shewed him; and he perused 
the Manuscript, proposed a few Alterations, and appeared 
well satisfied that I found a Concern on that Account: 
And in his last Sickness, as I was watching with him one 
Night, he being so far spent that there was no Expecta- 
tion of his Recovery, but having the perfect Use of his 
Understanding, he asked me concerning the Manuscript, 
whether I expected soon to proceed to take the Advice 


John Woolman*s Journal 39 

of Friends in publishing it? And, after some Conversa- 
tion thereon, said, I have all along been deeply affected 
with the Oppression of the poor Negroes; and now, at 
last, my Concern for them is as great as ever. 

By his Direction I had wrote his Will in a Time of 
Health, and that Night he desired me to read it to him, 
which I did; and he said it was agreeable to his Mind. 
He then made mention of his End, which he believed 
was near; and signified, that, though he was sensible of 
many Imperfections in the Course of his Life, yet his 
Experience of the Power of Truth, and of the Love and 
Goodness of God from Time to Time, even till now, was 
such, that he had no Doubt but that, in leaving this 
Life, he should enter into one more happy. 

The next Day his Sister Elizabeth came to see him, and 
told him of the Decease of their Sister Ann, who died a 
few Days before: He then said, I reckon Sister Ann was 
free to leave this World: Elizabeth said, she was. He 
then said, I also am free to leave it; and, being in great 
Weakness of Body, said, I hope I shall shortly go to 
Rest. He continued in a weighty Frame of Mind, and 
was sensible till near the last. 

On the second Day of the ninth Month, in the Year 1751, 
feeling Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends at the Great- 
Meadows, in the upper Part of West-Jersey, with the 
Uraty of our Monthly-meeting, I went there; and had 
some searching laborious Exercise amongst Friends in 
those Parts, and found inward Peace therein. 

In the ninth Month of the Year 1753, in Company with 
my well - esteemed Friend John Sykes, and with the 
Unity of Friends, we travelled about two Weeks, visiting 
Friends in Bucks-County. We laboured in the Love of 
the Gospel, according to the Measure received; and, 
through the Mercies of him, who is Strength to the Poor 
who trust in him, we found Satisfaction in our Visit: 
And, in the next Winter, Way opening to visit Friends 
Families within the Compass of our Monthly-meeting, 
partly by the Labours of two Friends from Pennsylvania, 
I joined in some Part of the Work; having had a Desire 
some Time that it might go forward amongst us. 

40 John Woolman's Journal 

T . . ... 

i About this Time, a Person at some Distance lying sick, 
his Brother came to me to write his Will : I knew he had 
Slaves; and, asking his Brother, was told he intended to 
leave them as Slaves to his Children. As Writing is a 
profitable Employ, and as offending sober People was 
disagreeable to my Inclination, I was straitened in my 
Mind ; but, as I looked to the Lord, he inclined my Heart 
to his Testimony: And I told the Man, that I believed 
the Practice of continuing Slavery to this People was not 
right; and had a Scruple in my Mind against doing 
Writings of that Kind ; that, though many in our Society 
kept them as Slaves, still I was not easy to be concerned 
in it; and desired to be excused from going to write the 
Will. I spake to him in the Fear of the Lord; and he 
made no Reply to what I said, but went away: He, also, 
had some Concerns in the Practice; and I thought he 
was displeased with me. In this Case I had a fresh 
Confirmation, that acting contrary to present outward 
Interest, from a Motive of divine Love, and in Regard 
to Truth and Righteousness, opens the Way to a Treasure 
better than Silver^ and to a Friendship exceeding the 
■ Friendship of Men._4 

The Manuscript before-mentioned having lain by me 
several Years, the Publication of it rested weightily upon 
me; and this Year I offered it to the Revisal of Friends, 
who, having examined and made some small Alterations 
in it, directed a Number of Copies thereof to be published, 
and dispersed amongst Friends. 

In the Year 1754, I found my Mind drawn to join 
in a Visit to Friends Families belonging to Chesterfield 
Monthly-meeting; and having the Approbation of our 
own, I went to their Monthly-meeting in order to confer 
with Friends, and see if Way opened for it: I had Con- 
ference with some of their Members, the Proposal having 
been opened before in their Meeting, and one Friend 
agreed to join with me as a Companion for a Beginning; 
but, when Meeting was ended, I felt great Distress of 
JMind, and doubted what Way to take, or whether to go 
Home and wait for greater Clearness : I kept my Distress 
secret; and, going with a Friend to his House, my De- 

John Woolman's Journal 41 

sires were to the great Shepherd for his heavenly Instruc- 
tion; and in the Morning I felt easy to proceed on the 
Visit, being very low in my Mind : And as mine Eye was 
turned to the Lord, waiting in FamiHes in deep Reverence 
before him, he was pleased graciously to afford Help; so 
that we had many comfortable Opportunities, and it 
appeared as a fresh Visitation to some young People. I 
spent several Weeks this Winter in the Service, Part of 
which Time was employed near Home. And again, in 
the following Winter, I was several Weeks in the same 
Service; some Part of the Time at Shrewsbury, in Com- 
pany with my beloved Friend, John Sykes; and have 
Cause humbly to acknowledge, that, through the Good- 
ness of the Lord, our Hearts were, at Times, enlarged in 
his Love; and Strength was given to go through the 
Trials which, in the Course of our Visit, attended us. 

From a Disagreement between the Powers of England 
and France, it was now a Time of Trouble on this Con- 
tinent; and an Epistle to Friends went forth from our 
General Spring-meeting, which I thought good to give a 
Place in this Journal. 

An EPISTLE from our General Spring - meeting of 
Ministers and Elders for Pennsylvania and New- 
Jersey, held at Philadelphia, from the 29th of the 
third Month, to the first of the fourth Month, 
inclusive, 1755. 

To Friends on the Continent of America. 

Dear Friends, — In an humble Sense of divine Goodness, 
and the gracious Continuation of God's Love to his People, 
we tenderly salute you; and are at this Time therein 
engaged in Mind, that all of us who profess the Truth, as 
held forth and published by our worthy Predecessors in 
this latter Age of the World, may keep near to that Life 
which is the Light of Men, and be strengthened to hold 
fast the Profession of our Faith without wavering, that 


42 John Woolman's Journal 

our Trust may not be in Man but in the Lord alone, who 
ruleth in the Army of Heaven, and in the Kingdoms of 
Men, before whom the Earth is as the Dust of the Balance, 
and her Inhabitants as Grasshoppers. Isa. xl. 22. 

We (being convinced that the gracious Design of the 
Almighty in sending his Son into the World, was to repair 
the Breach made by Disobedience, to finish Sin and 
Transgression, that his Kingdom might come, and his 
Will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven) have found it 
to be our Duty to cease from those national Contests pro- 
ductive of Misery and Bloodshed, and submit our Cause 
to him, the Most High, whose tender Love to his Children 
exceeds the most warm Affections of natural Parents, 
and who hath promised to his Seed throughout the Earth, 
as to one Individual, " I will never leave thee, nor forsake 
thee." Heb. xiii. 5. And as we, through the gracious 
Dealings of the Lord our God, have had Experience of 
that Work which is carried on, " not by earthly Might, 
nor by Power, but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts:" 
Zech. iv. 6. By which Operation, that spiritual Kingdom 
is set up, which is to subdue and break in pieces all 
Kingdoms that oppose it, and shall stand for ever; in 
a deep Sense thereof, and of the Safety, Stability, and 
Peace, there is in it, we are desirous that all who profess 
the Truth, may be inwardly acquainted with it, and 
thereby be qualified to conduct ourselves in all Parts of 
our Life as becomes our peaceable Profession: And we 
trust, as there is a faithful Continuance to depend wholly 
upon the Almighty Arm, from one Generation to another, 
the peaceable Kingdom will gradually be extended " from 
Sea to Sea, and from the River to the Ends of the Earth." 
Zech, ix. 10. to the Completion of those Prophecies 
already begun, that " Nation shall not lift up a Sword 
against Nation, nor learn War any more." Isa. ii. 4. 
Micah iv. 3. 

And, dearly beloved Friends, seeing we have these 
Promises, and believe that God is beginning to fulfil 
them, let us constantly endeavour to have our Minds 
sufficiently disintangled from the surfeiting Cares of this 
Life, and redeemed from the Love of the World, that no 

John Woolman's Journal 43 

earthly Possessions nor Enjoyments may bias our Judg- 
ments, or turn us from that Resignation, and entire Trust 
in God, to which his Blessing is most surely annexed; 
then may we say, " Our Redeemer is mighty, he will 
plead our Cause for us." Jer. 1. 34. And if, for the farther 
promoting his most gracious Purposes in the Earth, he 
should give us to taste of that bitter Cup which his 
faithful Ones have often partaken of; 0! that we may 
be rightly prepared to receive it. 

And now, dear Friends, with Respect to the Commo- 
tions and Stirrings of the Powers of the Earth at this 
Time near us, we are desirous that none of us may be 
moved thereat; " but repose ourselves in the Munition 
of that Rock that all these Shakings shall not move, even 
in the Knowledge and Feeling of the eternal Power of 
God, keeping us subjectly given up to his heavenly Will, 
and feel it daily to mortify that which remains in any of 
us which is of this World; for the worldly Part, in any, 
is the changeable Part, and that is up and down, full and 
empty, joyful and sorrowful, as Things go well or ill in 
this World; for as the Truth is but one, and many are 
made Partakers of its Spirit, so the World is but one, 
and many are made Partakers of the Spirit of it; and 
so many as do partake of it, so many will be straitened 
and perplexed with it: But they who are single to the 
Truth, waiting daily to feel the Life and Virtue of it in 
their Hearts, these shall rejoice in the midst of Adver- 
sity," and have to experience, with the Prophet, that 
" Although the Fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall 
Fruit be in the Vines; the Labour of the Olive shall fail, 
and the Fields shall yield no Meat; the Flock shall be 
cut off from the Fold, and there shall be no Herd m the 
Stalls; yet will they rejoice in the Lord, and joy in the 
God of their Salvation." Kah. iii. 17, 18. 

If, contrary to this, we profess the Truth, and, not 
living under the Power and Influence of it, are producing 
Fruits disagreeable to the Purity thereof, and trust to 
the Strength of Man to support ourselves, therein our 
Confidence will be vain. For he, who removed the Hedge 
from his Vineyard, and gave it to be trodden under Foot, 
E 402 

44 John Woolman's Journal 

by reason of the wild Grapes it produced, {Is a. v. 5.) 
remains unchangeable; And if, for the Chastisement of 
Wickedness, and the farther promoting his own Glory, he 
doth arise, even to shake terribly the Earth, who then 
may oppose him, and prosper! 

We remain, in the Love of the Gospel, your Friends 
and Brethren. 

Signed by fourteen Friends. 

^ Scrupling to do Writings, relative to keeping Slaves, 

having been a Means of sundry small Trials to me, in 

which I have so evidently felt my own Will set aside, I 

think it good to mention a few of them. — Tradesmen and 

Retailers of Goods, who depend on their Business for a 

Living, are naturally inclined to keep the Good-will of 

their Customers; nor is it a pleasant Thing for young 

Men to be under any Necessity to question the Judgment 

or Honesty of elderly Men, and more especially of such 

as have a fair Reputation. Deep-rooted Customs, though 

wrong, are not easily altered; but it is the Duty of every 

one to be firm in that which they certainly know is right 

for them. A charitable benevolent Man, well acquainted 

with a Negro, may, I believe, under some Circumstances, 

keep him in his Family as a Servant, from no other 

Motives than the Negro's Good ; but Man, as Man, knows 

not what shall be after him, nor hath Assurance that his 

Children will attain to that Perfection in Wisdom and 

Goodness necessary rightly to exercise such Power: It is 

clear to me, that I ought not to be the Scribe where Wills 

are drawn, in which some Children are made absolute 

Masters over others during Life. 

About this Time, an ancient Man, of good Esteem in 
the Neighbourhood, came to my House to get his Will 
written; he had young Negroes; and I asked him 
privately, how he purposed to dispose of them ? He told 
me: I then said, I cannot write thy Will without break- 
ing my own Peace ; and respectfully gave him my Reasons 
for it: He signified that he had a Choice that I should 
have written it; but as I could not, consistent with my 
Conscience, he did not desire it : And so he got it written 

John Woolman's Journal 45 

by some other Person. And, a few Years after, there 
being great Alterations in his Family, he came again to 
get me to write his Will: His Negroes were yet young; 
and his Son, to whom he intended to give them, was, 
since he first spoke to me, from a Libertine, become a 
sober young Man; and he supposed, that I would have 
been free, on that Account, to write it. We had much 
friendly Talk on the Subject, and then deferred it: A 
few Days after, he came again, and directed their Free- 
dom; and then I wrote his Will. 

Near the Time the last-mentioned Friend first spoke to 
me, a Neighbour received a bad Bruise in his Body, and 
sent for meYto bleed him; which being done, he desired 
meto write his Will: I took Notes; and, amongst other 
Things, he told me to which of his Children he gave his 
young Negro: I considered the Pain and Distress he was 
in, and knew not how it would end; so I wrote his Will, 
save only that Part concerning his Slave, and carrying it 
to his Bed side, read it to him; and then told him, in a 
friendly Way, that I could not write any Instruments by 
which my Fellow-creatures were made Slaves, without 
bringing Trouble on my own Mind: I let him know that 
I charged nothing for what I had done; and desired to 
be excused from doing the other Part in the Way he 
proposed: We then had a serious Conference on the 
Subject; at length he agreeing to set her free, I finished 
his Will. J 

Having found Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends 
on Long-Island, after obtaining a Certificate from our 
Monthly-meeting, I set off on the twelfth Day of the 
fifth Month, in the Year 1756. When I reached the 
Island, I lodged the first Night at the House of my dear 
Friend, Richard Hallet; the next Day, being the first 
of the Week, I was at the Meeting in New-town ; in which 
we experienced the renewed Manifestations of the Love 
of Jesus Christ, to the Comfort of the honest-hearted. I 
went that Night to Flushing; and the next Day, in 
Company with my beloved Friend, Matthew Franklin, 
we crossed the Ferry at White-stone ; were at three Meet- 
ings on the Main, and then returned to the Island; where 

46 John Woolman's Journal 

I spent the Remainder of the Week in visiting Meetings. 
The Lord, I believe, hath a People in those Parts, who 
are honestly inclined to serve him; but many, I fear, are 
too much clogged with the Things of this Life, and do 
not come forward bearing the Cross in such Faithfulness 
as he calls for. 

My Mind was deeply engaged in this Visit, both in 
publick and private; and, at several Places, observing 
that they had Slaves, I found myself under a Necessity 
in a friendly Way, to labour with them on that Subject; 
expressing, as Way opened, the Inconsistency of that 
Practice with the Purity of the Christian Religion, and 
the ill Effects of it manifested amongst us. 

The Latter-end of the Week, their Yearly-meeting 
began; at which were our Friends John Scarborough, 
Jane Hoskins, and Susanna Brown, from Pennsyl- 
vania : The publick Meetings were large, and measurably 
favoured with divine Goodness. 

The Exercise of my Mind, at this Meeting, was chiefly 
on Account of those who were considered as the foremost 
Rank in the Society; and,, in a Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders, Way opened,- that I expressed in some Measure 
what lay upon me; and, at a Time when Friends were 
met for transacting the Affairs of the Church, having set 
a while silent, I felt a Weight on my Mind, and stood 
up; and, through the gracious Regard of our heavenly 
Father, Strength was given fully to clear myself of a 
Burthen, which, for some Days, had been increasing 
upon me. 

^ Through the humbling Dispensations of divine Provi- 
dence, Men are sometimes fitted for his Service. The 
Messages of the Prophet Jeremiah, were so disagreeable 
to the People, and so reverse to the Spirit they lived in, 
that he became the Object of their Reproach; and, in 
the Weakness of Nature, thought of desisting from his 
prophetic Office; but, saith he, " His Word was in my 
Heart as a burning Fire shut up in my Bones ; and I was 
weary with forbearing, and could not stay." I saw at 
this Time, that if I was honest in declaring that which 
Truth opened in me, I could not please all Men; and 

John Woolman's Journal 47 

laboured to be content in the Way of my Duty, however 
disagreeable to my own Inclination .T After this I went 
homeward, taking Woodbridge, a.ndPtatnfield in my Way ; 
in both which Meetings, the pure Influence of divine Love 
was manifested; in an humbling Sense whereof I went 
Home, having been out about twenty-four Days, and 
rode about three hundred and sixteen Miles. 

While I was out on this Journey, my Heart was much 
affected with a Sense of the State of the Churches in our 
southern Provinces; and, believing the Lord was calling 
me to some farther Labour amongst them, I was bowed 
in Reverence before him, with fervent Desires that I 
might find Strength to resign myself up to his heavenly 

Until this Year, 1756, I continued to retail Goods, 
besides following my Trade as a Taylor; about which 
Time, I grew uneasy on Account of my Business growing 
too cumbersome: I had begun with selling Trimmings 
for Garments, and from thence proceeded to sell Cloths 
and Linens; and, at length, having got a considerable 
Shop of Goods, my Trade increased every Year, and the 
Road to large Business appeared open; but I felt a Stop 
in my Mind. 

Through the Mercies of the Almighty, I had, in a good 
degree, learned to be content with a plain Way of Living : 
I had but a small Family ; and, on serious Consideration, 
I believed Truth did not require me to engage in much 
cumbering Affairs: It had been my general Practice to 
buy and sell Things really useful: Things that served 
chiefly to please the vain Mind in People, I was not easy 
to trade in; seldom did it; and, whenever I did, I found 
it weaken me as a Christian. 

The Increase of Business became my Burthen; for, 
though my natural Inclination was toward Merchandize, 
yet I believed Truth required me to live more free from 
outward Cumbers: and there was now a Strife in my 
Mind between the two; and in this Exercise my Prayers 
were put up to the Lord, who graciously heard me, and 
gave me a Heart resigned to his holy Will: Then I 
lessened my outward Business; and, as I had Oppor- 

48 John Woolman*s Journal 

tunity, told my Customers of my Intention, that they 
might consider what Shop to turn to: And, in a while, 
wholly laid down Merchandize, following my Trade, as a 
Taylor, myself only, having no Apprentice. I also had 
a Nursery of Appletrees; in which I employed some of 
my Time in hoeing, grafting, trimming, and inoculating. 
In Merchandize it is the Custom, where I lived, to sell 
chiefly on Credit, and poor People often get in Debt; 
and when Payment is expected, not having wherewith to 
pay, their Creditors often sue for it at Law. Having 
often observed Occurrences of this Kind, I found it good 
for me to advise poor People to take such Goods as were 
most useful and not costly. 

In the Time of Trading, I had an Opportunity of 
seeing, that the too liberal Use of spirituous Liquors, and 
the Custom of wearing too costly Apparel, led some 
People into great Inconveniences; and these two Things 
appear to be often connected; for, by not attending to 
that Use of Things which is consistent with universal 
Righteousness, there is an Increase of Labour which 
extends beyond what our heavenly Father intends for us : 
And by great Labour, and often by much Sweating, there 
is, even among such as are not Drunkards, a craving of 
some Liquors to revive the Spirits; that, partly by the 
luxurious Drinking of some, and partly by the Drinking 
of others (led to it through immoderate Labour), very 
great Quantities of Rum are every Year expended in our 
Colonies; the greater Part of which we should have no 
Need of, did we steadily attend to pure Wisdom. 

Where Men take Pleasure in feeling their Minds elevated 
with Strong-drink, and so indulge their Appetite as to 
disorder their Understandings, neglect their Duty as 
Members in a Family or Civil Society, and cast off all 
Regard to Religion, their Case is much to be pitied; and 
where such, whose Lives are for the most Part regular, 
and whose Examples have a strong Influence on the 
Minds of others, adhere to some Customs which power- 
fully draw to the Use of more Strong-liquor than pure 
Wisdom allows; this alsOj as it hinders the spreading of 

John Woolman's Journal 49 

the Spirit of Meekness, and strengthens the Hands of the 
more excessive Drinkers, is a Case to be lamented. 

As every Degree of Luxury hath some Connection with 
Evil, those who profess to be Disciples of Christ, and are 
looked upon as Leaders of the People, should have that 
Mind in them which was also in Christ, and so stand 
separate from every wrong Way, as a Means of Help 
to the Weaker. As I have sometimes been much spent 
in the Heat, and taken Spirits to revive me, I have found, ' 
by Experience, that in such Circumstances the Mind is 
not so calm, norjso fitly disposed for divine Meditation, 
as when all such Extremes are avoided; and I have felt 
an increasing Care to attend to that holy Spirit which 
sets Bounds to our Desires, and leads those, who faith- 
fully follow it, to apply all the Gifts of divine Providence 
to the Purposes for which they were intended. Did such, 
as have the Care of great Estates, attend with Singleness 
of Heart to this heavenly Instructor, which so opens and 
enlarges the Mind, that Men love their Neighbours as 
themselves, they would have Wisdom given them to 
manage, without finding Occasion to employ some People ^ 
in the Luxuries of Life, or to make it necessary for others 
to labour too hard; but, for want of steadily regarding 
this Principle of divine Love, a selfish Spirit takes Place 
in the Minds of People, which is attended with Darkness 
and manifold Confusion in the World. 

Though trading in Things useful is an honest Employ; 
yet, through the great Number of Superfluities which 
are bought and sold, and through the Corruption of the . 

Times, they, who apply to merchandize for a Living, V 
have great Need to be well experienced in that Precept 
which the Prophet Jeremiah laid down for his Scribe: 
" Seekest thou great Things for thyself? seek them not." 

In the Winter, this Year, I was engaged with Friends 
in visiting Families; and, through the Goodness of the 
Lord, we had oftentimes Experience of his Heart-tender- 
ing Presence amongst us. 

50 John Woolman's Journal 

A Copy of a Letter written to a Friend. 

In this thy late Affliction I have found a deep Fellow- 
feeling with thee; and had a secret Hope throughout^ 
that it might please the Father of Mercies to raise thee 
up, and sanctify thy Troubles to thee; that thou, being 
more fully acquainted with that Way which the World 
esteems foolish, mayst feel the Clothing of divine Forti- 
tude, and be strengthened to resist that Spirit which leads 
from the Simplicity of the everlasting Truth. 

We may see ourselves crippled and halting, and, from 
a strong Bias to Things pleasant and easy, find an Im- 
possibility to advance forward; but Things impossible 
with Men are possible with God; and, our Wills being 
made subject to his, all Temptations are surmountable. 

This Work of subjecting the Will is compared to the 
Mineral in the Furnace; "He refines them as Silver is 
refined. — He shall sit as a Refiner and Purifier of Silver." 
By these Comparisons we are instructed in the Necessity 
of the Operation of the Hand of God upon us, to prepare 
our Hearts truly to adore him, and manifest that Adora- 
tion, by inwardly turning away from that Spirit, in all 
its Workings, which is not of him. To forward this Work, 
the all-wise God is sometimes pleased, through outward 
Distress, to bring us near the Gates of Death; that. Life 
being painful and afflicting, and the Prospect of Eternity 
open before us, all earthly Bonds may be loosened, and 
the Mind prepared for that deep and sacred Instruction, 
which otherwise would not be received. If Parents love 
their Children and delight in their Happiness, then he, 
who is perfect Goodness, in sending abroad mortal Con- 
tagions, doth assuredly direct their Use: Are the 
Righteous removed by it? Their Change is happy: Are 
the Wicked taken away in their Wickedness? The 
Almighty is clear: Do we pass through with Anguish 
and great Bitterness, and yet recover, he intends that 
we should be purged from Dross, and our Ears opened 
to Discipline. 

And now that, on thy Part, after thy sore Affliction 

John Woolman's Journal 5 1 

and Doubts of Recovery, thou art again restored, forget 
not him who hath helped thee; but in humble Gratitude 
hold fast his Instructions, thereby to shun those By- 
paths which lead from the firm Foundation. I am 
sensible of that Variety of Company, to which one in thy 
Business must be exposed: I have painfully felt the 
Force of Conversation proceeding from Men deeply rooted 
in an earthly Mind, and can sympathize with others in 
such Conflicts, in that much Weakness still attends me. 

I find that to be a Fool as to worldly Wisdom, and 
commit my Cause to God, not fearing to offend Men, 
who take Ofifence at the Simplicity of Truth, is the only 
Way to remain unmoved at the Sentiments of others. 

The Fear of Man brings a Snare; by halting in our 
Duty, and giving back in the Time of Trial, our Hands ■ 
grow weaker, our Spirits get mingled with the People, 
our Ears grow dull as to hearing the Language of the true 
Shepherd; that when we look at the Way of the Righteous, 
it seems as though it was not for us to follow them. 

There is a Love clothes my Mind, while I write, which 
is superior to all Expressions; and I find my Heart open 
to encourage a holy Emulation, to advance forward in 
Christian Firmness. Deep Humility is a strong Bulwark; 
and, as we enter into it, we find Safety: The Foolishness 
of God is wiser than Man, and the Weakness of God is 
stronger than Man. Being unclothed of our own Wisdom, 
and knowing the Abasement of the Creature, therein we 
find that Power to arise, which gives Health and Vigour 
to us. 


His Journey to Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and North- 
Carolina: Considerations on the State of Friends there ; 
and the Exercise he was under in travelling among those 
so generally concerned in keeping Slaves : With some 
Observations in Conversation, at several Times, on this 
Subject — His Epistle to Friends at New-Garden and Cane- 
Creek — His Thoughts on the Neglect of a religious Care in 
the Education of the Negroes 

Feeling an Exercise in Relation to a Visit to the southern 
Provinces, I acquainted our Monthly-meeting therewith, 
and obtained their Certificate: Expecting to go alone, 
one of my Brothers, who lived in Philadelphia, having 
some Business in North-Carolina, proposed going with me 
Part of the Way; but, as he had a View of some outward 
Affairs, to accept of him as a Companion seemed some 
Difficulty with me, whereupon I had Conversation with 
him at sundry Times; and, at length, feeling easy in my 
Mind, I had Conversation with several elderly Friends 
of Philadelphia on the Subject; and he obtaining a 
Certificate suitable to the Occasion, we set off in the fifth 
Month of the Year 1757; and, coming to Nottingham 
Week-day Meeting, lodged at John Churchman's; and 
here I met with our Friend Benjamin Buffington, from 
New-England, who was returning from a Visit to the 
southern Provinces. Thence we crossed the River Susgue- 
hannah, and lodged at William Cox's in Maryland ; and, 
soon after I entered this Province, a deep and painful 
Exercise came upon me, which I often had some Feeling 
of since my Mind was drawn towards these Parts, and 
with which I had acquainted my Brother before we 
agreed to join as Companions. 

As the People in this and the southern Provinces live 
much on the Labour of Slaves, many of whom are used 
hardly, my Concern was, that I might attend with Single- 


John Woolman's Journal 53 

ness of Heart to the Voice of the true Shepherd, and be 
so supported as to remain unmoved at the Faces of Men. 

The Prospect of so weighty a Work brought me very- 
low; and such were the Conflicts of my Soul, that I had 
a near Sympathy with the Prophet, in the Time of his 
Weakness, when he said, " If thou deal thus with me, 
kill me, I pray thee, if I have found Favour in thy Sight," 
Numb. xi. 15. But I soon saw that this proceeded from 
the Want of a full Resignation to the divine Will. Many 
were the Afflictions which attended me; and in great 
Abasement, with many Tears, my Cries were to the 
Almighty, for his gracious and Fatherly Assistance; and 
then, after a Time of deep Trial, I was favoured to under- 
stand the State mentioned by the Psalmist, more clearly 
than ever I had before; to wit: " My Soul is even as a 
weaned Child." Psalm cxxxi. 2. Being thus helped to 
sink down into Resignation, I felt a Deliverance from 
that Tempest in which I had been sorely exercised, and 
in Calmness of Mind went forward, trusting that the Lord 
Jesus Christ, as I faithfully attended to him, would be a 
CounseUor to me in all Difficulties. 

The seventh Day of the fifth Month, in the Year 1757, 
I lodged at a Friend's House; and the next Day, being 
the first of the Week, was at Potapsco Meeting; then 
crossed Patuxeni River, and lodged at a Public-house. 
On the ninth breakfasted at a Friend's House ; who, after- 
ward, putting us a little on our Way, I had Conversation 
with him, in the Fear of the Lord, concerning his Slaves ; 
in which my Heart was tender, and I used much Plain- 
ness of Speech with him, which he appeared to take 
kindly. We pursued our Journey without appointing 
Meetings, being pressed in Mind to be at the Yearly- 
meeting in Virginia; and, in my travelling on the Road, 
I often felt a Cry rise from the Center of my Mind, thus: 
O Lord, I am a Stranger on the Earth, hide not thy Face 
from me. 

On the eleventh Day of the fifth Month, we crossed 
the Rivers Patowmack and Rapahannock, and lodged at 
Port-Royal; and on the Way we happening in Com- 
pany with a Colonel of the Militia, who appeared to 

54 John Woolman's Journal 

be a thoughtful Man, I took Occasion to remark on the 
Difference in general betwixt a People used to labour 
moderately for their Living, training up their Children 
in Frugality and Business, and thooc who live on the 
Labour of Slaves ; the former, in my View, being the most 
happy Life : With which he concurred, and mentioned the 
Trouble arising from the untoward, slothful. Disposition 
of the Negroes; adding, that one of our Labourers would 
do as much in a Day as two of their Slaves. I replied, 
that free Men, whose Minds were properly on their 
Business, found a Satisfaction in improving, cultivating, 
and providing for their Families; but Negroes, labouring 
to support others who claim them as their Property, and 
expecting nothing but Slavery during Life, had not the 
like Inducement to be industrious. 

After some farther Conversation, I said, that Men 
having Power too often misapplied it; that though we 
made Slaves of the Negroes, and the Turks made Slaves 
of the Christians, I believed that Liberty was the natural 
Right of all Men equally: Which he did not deny; but 
said, the Lives of the Negroes were so wretched in their 
own Country, that many of them lived better here than 
there: I only said, there are great odds, in regard to us, 
on what Principle we act; and so the Conversation on 
that Subject ended: And I may here add, that another 
Person, some Time afterward, mentioned the Wretched- 
ness of the Negroes, occasioned by their intestine Wars, 
as an Argument in Favour of our fetching them away 
for Slaves : To which I then replied, if Compassion on the 
Africans, in Regard to their domestic Troubles, were the 
real Motive of our purchasing them, that Spirit of Tender- 
ness, being attended to, would incite us to use them 
kindly ; that, as Strangers brought out of Affliction, their 
Lives might be happy among us; and as they are human 
Creatures, whose Souls are as precious as ours, and who 
may receive the same Help and Comfort from the holy 
Scriptures as we do, we could not omit suitable En- 
^ deavours to instruct them therein : But while we manifest, 
^ by our Conduct, that our Views in purchasing them are 
to advance ourselves ; and while our buying Captives 

John Woolman's Journal 55 

taken in War animates those Parties to push on that 
War, and increase Desolation amongst them, to say they 
live unhappy in Africa, is far from being an Argument in 
our Favour: And I farther said, the present Circum- 
stances of these Provinces to me appear difficult; that 
the Slaves look like a burthensome Stone to such who 
burthen themselves with them; and that if the white 
People retain a Resolution to prefer their outward 
Prospects of Gain to all other Considerations, and do ' 
not act conscientiously toward them as fellow Creatures, ^ 
I believe that Burthen will grow heavier and heavier, till , 
Times change in a Way disagreeable to us : At which the \y 
Person appeared very serious, and owned, that, in con- 
sidering their Condition, and the Manner of their Treat- 
ment in these Provinces, he had sometimes thought it 
might be just in the Almighty so to order it. 

Having thus travelled through Maryland, we came 
amongst Friends at Cedar-Creek in Virginia, on the 
12th Day of the fifth Month; and the next Day rode, 
in Company with several Friends, a Day's Journey to 
Camp-Creek. As I was riding along in the Morning, my 
Mind was deeply affected in a Sense I had of the Want of 
divine Aid to support me in the various Difficulties which 
attended me; and, in an uncommon Distress of Mind, 
I cried in secret to the Most High, Lord, be merciful, I 
beseech thee, to thy poor afflicted Creature. After some 
Time, I felt inward Relief; and, soon after, a Friend in 
Company began to talk in Support of the Slave-Trade, 
and said, the Negroes were understood to be the Off- 
spring of Cain, their Blackness being the Mark God set 
upon him after he murdered Abel his Brother; that it 
was the Design of Providence they should be Slaves, as a 
Condition proper to the Race of so wicked a Man as Cain 
was: Then another spake in Support of what had been 
said. To all which, I replied in Substance as follows: 
That Noah and his Family were all who survived the 
Flood, according to Scripture; and, as Noah was of Sethis 
Race, the Family of Cain was wholly destroyed. One 
of them said, that after the Flood Ham went to the Land 
of Nod, and took a Wife; that Nod was a Land far distant, 

56 John Woolman's Journal 

inhabited by Cain's Race, and that the Flood did not 
reach it; and as Ham was sentenced to be a Servant of 
Servants to his Brethren, these two FamiHes, being thus 
joined, were undoubtedly fit only for Slaves. I replied, 
the Flood was a Judgment upon the World for its 
Abominations; and it was granted, that Cain^s Stock 
was the most wicked, and therefore unreasonable to 
suppose they were spared: As to Ham^s going to the 
Land of Nod for a Wife, no Time being fixed. Nod might 
be inhabited by some of Noah's Family, before Ham 
married a second Time; moreover the Text saith, " That 
all Flesh died that moved upon the Earth." Gen. vii. 21. 
I farther reminded them, how the Prophets repeatedly 
declare, " That the Son shall not suffer for the Iniquity 
of the Father; but every one be answerable for his own 
Sins." I was troubled to perceive the Darkness of their 
Imaginations; and in some Pressure of Spirit said, the 
Love of Ease and Gain is the Motive in general for 
keeping Slaves, and Men are wont to take hold of weak 
Arguments to support a Cause which is unreasonable; 
and added, I have no Interest on either Side, save only 
the Interest which I desire to have in the Truth: And as 
I believe Liberty is their Right, and see they are not 
only deprived of it, but treated in other Respects with 
Inhumanity in many Places, I believe he, who is a Refuge 
for the Oppressed, will, in his own Time, plead their 
Cause; and happy will it be for such as walk in Up- 
rightness before him: And thus our Conversation ended. 
On the fourteenth Day of the fifth Month I was at 
Camp-Creek Monthly-meeting, and then rode to the 
Mountains up James-River, and had a Meeting at a 
Friend's House; in both which I felt Sorrow of Heart, 
and my Tears were poured out before the Lord, who was 
pleased to afford a Degree of Strength, by which Way was 
opened to clear my Mind amongst Friends in those Places. 
From thence I went to Fort-Creek, and so to Cedar-Creek 
again; at which Place I had a Meeting; here I found a 
tender Seed: And as I was preserved in the Ministry to 
keep low with the Truth, the same Truth in their Hearts 
answered it, that it was a Time of mutual Refreshment 

John Woolman's Journal 57 

from the Presence of the Lord. I lodged at James 
Standley's, Father of William Standley, one of the 
young Men who suffered Imprisonment at Winchester, 
last Summer, on Account of their Testimony against 
Fighting; and I had some satisfactory Conversation with 
him concerning it. Hence I went to the Swamp Meeting, 
and to Wayanoke Meeting; and then crossed James- 
River, and lodged near Burleigh. From the Time of my 
entering Maryland I had been much under Sorrow, which 
so increased upon me, that my Mind was almost over- 
whelmed; and I may say with the Psalmist, " In my 
Distress I called upon the Lord, and cried to my God; " 
who, in infinite Goodness, looked upon my Affliction, and 
in my private Retirement sent the Comforter for my 
Relief: For which I humbly bless his holy Name. 

The Sense I had of the State of the Churches brought 
a Weight of Distress upon me : The Gold to me appeared 
dim, and the fine Gold changed; and though this is the 
Case too generally, yet the Sense of it in these Parts 
hath, in a particular Manner, borne heavy upon me. It 
appeared to me, that, through the prevailing of the 
Spirit of this World, the Minds of many were brought to 
an inward Desolation; and, instead of the Spirit of Meek- 
ness, Gentleness, and heavenly Wisdom, which are the 
necessary Companions of the true Sheep of Christ, a 
Spirit of Fierceness, and the Love of Dominion, too 
generally prevailed. From small Beginnings in Errors, 
great Buildings, by degrees, are raised; and from one 
Age to another are more and more strengthened by the 
general Concurrence of the People: and, as Men obtain 
Reputation by their Profession of the Truth, their Virtues 
are mentioned as Arguments in Favour of general Error, 
and those of less Note, to justify themselves, say, such 
and such good Men did the like. By what other Steps 
could the People of Judah arise to that Height in Wicked- 
ness, as to give just Ground for the Prophet Isaiah to 
declare, in the Name of the Lord, " that none calleth for 
Justice, nor any pleadeth for Truth." Isaiah lix. 4. Or 
for the Almighty to call upon the great City of Jerusalem, 
just before the Babylonish Captivity : "If ye can find a 

58 John Woolman's Journal 

Man, if there be any who executeth Judgment, that 
seeketh the Truth, and I will pardon it." Jer. v. i. 
The Prospect of a Road lying open to the same De- 
generacy, in some Parts of this newly-settled Land of 
America, in Respect to our Conduct toward the Negroes, 
deeply bowed my Mind in this Journey; and, though, 
to briefly relate how these People are treated is no agree- 
able Work; yet, after often reading over the Notes I 
made as I travelled, I find my Mind engaged to preserve 
them. Many of the white People in those Provinces take 
little or no Care of Negro Marriages; and, when Negroes 
marry after their own Way, some make so little Account 
■of those Marriages, that, with Views of outward Interest, 
they often part Men from their Wives by selling them far 
asunder; which is common when Estates are sold by 
Executors at Vendue. Many, whose Labour is heavy, 
being followed, at their Business in the Field, by a Man 
with a Whip, hired for that Purpose, have, in common, 
little else allowed but one Peck of Indian Corn and some 
Salt for one Week, with a few Potatoes; the Potatoes 
they commonly raise by their Labour on the first Day of 
the Week. 

The Correction, ensuing on their Disobedience to Over- 
:seers, or Slothfulness in Business, is often very severe, 
and sometimes desperate. 

The Men and Women have many Times scarce Clothes 
enough to hide their Nakedness, and Boys and Girls, ten 
and twelve Years old, are often quite naked amongst 
their Master's Children: Some of our Society, and some 
of the Society called New-Lights, use some Endeavours 
to instruct those they have in reading; but, in common, 
this is not only neglected, but disapproved. These are 
the People by whose Labour the other Inhabitants are in 
a great Measure supported, and many of them in the 
Luxuries of Life: These are the People who have made 
no Agreement to serve us, and who have not forfeited 
their Liberty that we know of : These are Souls for whom 
Christ died, and, for our Conduct toward them, we must 
answer before him who is no Respecter of Persons. 

They who know the only true God, and Jesus Christ 

John Woolman's Journal 59 

whom he hath sent, and are thus acquainted with the 
merciful, benevolent Gospel Spirit, will therein perceive 
that the Indignation of God is kindled against Oppression 
and Cruelty; and, in beholding the great Distress of so 
numerous a People, will find Cause for Mourning. 

From my Lodging I went to Burleigh Meeting, where I 
felt my Mind drawn into a quiet resigned State; and, 
after long Silence, I felt an Engagement to stand up; 
and, through the powerful Operation of divine Love, we 
were favoured with an edifying Meeting. The next Meet- 
ing we had was at Black-Water ; and so to the Yearly- 
meeting at the western Branch: When Business began, 
some Queries were considered, by some of their Members, 
to be now produced; and, if approved, to be answered 
hereafter by their respective Monthly-meetings. They 
were the Pennsylvania Queries, which had been examined 
by a Committee of Virginia Yearly-meeting appointed 
the last Year, who made some Alterations in them; one 
of which Alterations was made in Favour of a Custom 
which troubled me. The Query was, " Are there any 
concerned in the Importation of Negroes, or buying them 
after imported ? " Which they altered thus : " Are there 
any concerned in the Importation of Negroes, or buying 
them to trade in? " As one Query admitted with Un- 
animity was, " Are any concerned in buying or vending 
Goods unlawfully imported, or prize Goods ? " I found 
my Mind engaged to say, that as we professed the Truth, 
and were there assembled to support the Testimony 
of it, it was necessary for us to dwell deep, and act in 
that Wisdom which is pure, or otherwise we could not 
prosper. I then mentioned their Alteration; and, refer- 
ring to the last-mentioned Query, added, as purchasing 
any Merchandize, taken by the Sword, was always 
allowed to be inconsistent with our Principles; Negroes 
being Captives of War, or taken by Stealth, those 
Circumstances make it inconsistent with our Testimony 
to buy them; and their being our Fellow-creatures, 
who are sold as Slaves, adds greatly to the Iniquity. 
Friends appeared attentive to what was said; some 
expressed a Care and Concern about their Negroes ; none 

F 402 

6o John Woolman's Journal 

made any Objection, by Way of Reply to what I said; 
but the Query was admitted as they had altered it. As 
some of their Members have heretofore traded in Negroes, 
as in other Merchandize, this Query being admitted, will 
be one Step farther than they have hitherto gone: And 
I did not see it my Duty to press for an Alteration; but 
felt easy to leave it all to him, who alone is able to turn 
the Hearts of the Mighty, and make Way for the spread- 
ing of Truth on the Earth, by Means agreeable to his 
infinite Wisdom. But, in Regard to those they already 
had, I felt my Mind engaged to labour with them; and 
said, that, as we believe the Scriptures were given forth 
by holy Men, as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, 
and many of us know by Experience that they are often 
helpful and comfortable, and believe ourselves bound in 
Duty to teach our Children to read them, I believe, that, 
if we were divested of all selfish Views, the same good 
Spirit, that gave them forth, would engage us to teach 
the Negroes to read, that they might have the Benefit of 
them: Some, amongst them, at this Time, manifested a 
Concern in Regard to taking more Care in the Education 
of their Negroes. 

On the twenty-ninth Day of the fifth Month, at the 
House where I lodged, was a Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders, at the ninth Hour in the Morning; at which Time 
I found an Engagement to speak freely and plainly to 
them concerning their Slaves; mentioning, how they, as 
the first Rank in the Society, whose Conduct in that Case 
was much noticed by others, were under the stronger 
Obligations to look carefully to themselves: Expressing 
how needful it was for them, in that Situation, to be 
thoroughly divested of all selfish Views; that living in 
the pure Truth, and acting conscientiously toward those 
People in their Education and otherwise, they might be 
instrumental in helping forward a Work so necessary, and 
so much neglected amongst them. At the twelfth Hour 
the Meeting of Worship began, which was a solid Meeting. 

On the thirtieth Day, about the tenth Hour, Friends 
met to finish their Business, and then the meeting for 
Worship ensued, which to me was a laborious Time ; but, 

John Woolman's Journal 6i 

through the Goodness of the Lord, Truth, I believe, 
gained some Ground; and it was a strengthening Oppor- 
tunity to the Honest-hearted. 

About this Time I wrote an Epistle to Friends in the 
Back-settlements of North-Carolina, as follows : 

To Friends at their Monthly-meeting at New-Garden 
and Cane-Creek, in North-Carolina. 

Dear Friends, — It having pleased the Lord to draw me 
forth on a Visit to some Parts of Virginia and Carolina, 
you have often been in my Mind; and though my Way 
is not clear to come in Person to visit you, yet I feel it 
in my Heart to communicate a few Things, as they arise 
in the Love of Truth. First, my dear Friends, dwell in 
Humility, and take Heed that no Views of outward Gain 
get too deep hold of you, that so your Eyes being single 
to the Lord, you may be preserved in the Way of Safety. 
Where People let loose their Minds after the Love of 
outward Things, and are more engaged in pursuing the 
Profits, and seeking the Friendships, of this World, than 
to be inwardly acquainted with the Way of true Peace; 
such walk in a vain Shadow, while the true Comfort of 
Life is wanting: Their Examples are often hurtful to 
others; and their Treasures, thus collected, do many 
Times prove dangerous Snares to their Children. 

But where People are sincerely devoted to follow 
Christ, and dwell under the Influence of his holy Spirit, 
their Stability and Firmness, through a divine Blessing, 
is at Times like Dew on the tender Plants round about 
them, and the Weightiness of their Spirits secretly works 
on the Minds of others; and in this Condition, through 
the spreading Influence of divine Love, they feel a Care 
over the Flock; and Way is opened for maintaining good 
Order in the Society: And though we meet with Opposi- 
tion from another Spirit, yet, as there is a dwelling in 
Meekness, feeling our Spirits subject, and moving only 
in the gentle peaceable Wisdom, the inward Reward of 
Quietness will be greater than all our Difficulties. Where 
the pure Life is kept to, and Meetings of Discipline are 

62 John Woolman's Journal 

held in the Authority of it^ we find by Experience that 
they are comfortable^ and tend to the Health of the Body. 

While I write^ the Youth come fresh in my Way: — ■ 
Dear young People, choose God for your Portion; love 
his Truth, and be not ashamed of it: Choose for your 
Company such as serve him in Uprightness ; and shun, as 
most dangerous, the Conversation of those whose Lives 
are of an ill Savour; for, by frequenting such Company, 
some hopeful young People have come to great Loss, and 
have been drawn from less Evils to greater, to their utter 
Ruin. In the Bloom of Youth no Ornament is so lovely 
as that of Virtue, nor any Enjoyments equal to those 
which we partake of, in fully resigning ourselves to the 
divine Will: These Enjoyments add Sweetness to all 
other Comforts, and give true Satisfaction in Company 
and Conversation, where People are mutually acquainted 
with it; and, as your Minds are thus seasoned with the 
Truth, you will find Strength to abide stedfast to the 
Testimony of it, and be prepared for Services in the 

And now, dear Friends and Brethren, as you are im- 
proving a Wilderness, and may be numbered amongst 
the first Planters in one Part of a Province, I beseech 
you, in the Love of Jesus Christ, to wisely consider the 
Force of your Examples, and think how much your 
Successors may be thereby affected: It is a Help in a 
Country, yea, and a great Favour and a Blessing, when 
Customs, first settled, are agreeable to sound Wisdom; 
so, when they are otherwise, the Effect of them is grievous ; 
and Children feel themselves encompassed with Diffi- 
culties prepared for them by their Predecessors. 

As moderate Care and Exercise, under the Direction of 
true Wisdom, are useful both to Mind and Body; so by 
this Means in general, the real Wants of Life are easily 
supplied: Our gracious Father having so proportioned 
one to the other, that keeping in the true Medium we 
may pass on quietly. Where Slaves are purchased to do 
our Labour, numerous Difficulties attend it. To rational 
Creatures Bondage is uneasy, and frequently occasions 
Sourness and Discontent in them; which affects the 

John Woolman's Journal 63 

Family, and such as claim the Mastery over them: And 
thus People and their Children are many Times encom- 
passed with Vexations, which arise from their applying 
to wrong Methods to get a Living. 

I have been informed that there is a large Number 
of Friends in your Parts, who have no Slaves; and in 
tender and most affectionate Love, I beseech you to keep 
clear from purchasing any. Look, my dear Friends, to 
divine Providence; and follow in Simplicity that 
Exercise of Body, that Plainness and Frugality, which 
true Wisdom leads to; so will you be preserved from 
those Dangers which attend such as are aiming at out- 
ward Ease and Greatness. 

Treasures, though small, attained on a true Principle 
of Virtue, are sweet in the Possession, and, while we walk 
in the Light of the Lord, there is true Comfort and Satis- 
faction. Here, neither the Murmurs of an oppressed 
People, nor an uneasy Conscience, nor anxious Thoughts 
about the Events of Things, hinder the Enjoyment of it. 

When we look toward the End of Life, and think on 
the Division of our Substance among our Successors; if 
we know that it was collected in the Fear of the Lord, in 
Honesty, in Equity, and in Uprightness of Heart before 
him, we may consider it as his Gift to us; and with a 
single Eye to his Blessing, bestow it on those we leave 
behind us. Such is the Happiness of the plain Ways 
of true Virtue. " The Work of Righteousness shall be 
Peace; and the Effect of Righteousness, Quietness and 
Assurance for ever." Isa. xxxii. 17. 

Dwell here, my dear Friends ; and then, in remote and 
solitary Desarts, you may find true Peace and Satisfac- 
tion. If the Lord be our God, in Truth and Reality, 
there is Safety for us; for he is a Stronghold in the Day 
of Trouble, and knoweth them that trust in him. 

Isle of Wight County, in Virginia, 
2gth of the 5th Month, 1757. 

From the Yearly-meeting in Virginia^ I went to 
Carolina ; and, on the first Day of the sixth Month, was 
at Wells Monthly-meeting, where the Spring of the Gospel 

64 John Woolman's Journal 

Ministry was opened, and the Love of Jesus Christ ex- 
perienced amongst us : To his Name be the Praise ! 

Here my Brother joined with some Friends from New- 
Garden, who were going homeward; and I went next to 
Simond's Creek Monthly-meeting, where I was silent 
during the Meeting for Worship: When Business came 
on, my Mind was exercised concerning the poor Slaves; 
but did not feel my Way clear to speak: In this Condi- 
tion I was bowed in Spirit before the Lord; and with 
Tears and inward Supplication besought him so to open 
my Understanding, that I might know his Will concern- 
ing me; and, at length, my mind was settled in Silence: 
Near the End of their Business, a Member of their Meet- 
ing expressed a Concern, that had some Time lain upon 
him, on Account of Friends so much neglecting their 
Duty in the Education of their Slaves; and proposed 
having Meetings sometimes appointed for them on a 
Week-day, to be only attended by some Friends to be 
named in their Monthly-meetings : Many present appeared 
to unite with the Proposal: One said, he had often 
wondered that they, being our Fellow-creatures, and 
capable of religious Understanding, had been so exceed- 
ingly neglected : Another expressed the like Concern, and 
appeared zealous, that Friends, in future, might more 
closely consider it: At length a Minute was made; and 
the farther Consideration of it referred to their next 
Monthly-meeting. The Friend who made this Proposal 
had Negroes: He told me, that he was at New-Garden, 
about two hundred and fifty Miles from Home, and came 
back alone; and that in this solitary Journey, this Exer- 
cise, in Regard to the Education of their Negroes, was, 
from Time to Time, renewed in his Mind. A Friend of 
some Note in Virginia, who had Slaves, told me, that he 
being far from Home on a lonesome Journey, had many 
serious Thoughts about them; and that his Mind was so 
impressed therewith, that he believed that he saw a Time 
coming, when divine Providence would alter the Circum- 
stances of these People, respecting their Condition as 

From hence I went to Newhegun Creek, and sat a 

John Woolman's Journal 65 

considerable Time in much Weakness; then I felt Truth 
open the Way to speak a little in much Plainness and 
Simplicity, till, at length, through the Increase of divine 
Love amongst us, we had a seasoning Opportunity. 
From thence to the Head of Little-River , on a First-day, 
where was a crowded Meeting; and, I believe, it was, 
through divine Goodness, made profitable to some. 
Thence to the Old-Neck; where I was led into a careful 
searching out the secret Workings of the Mystery of 
Iniquity, which, under a Cover of Religion, exalts itself 
against that pure Spirit, which leads in the Way of Meek- 
ness and Self-denial. From thence to Pineywoods : This 
was the last Meeting I was at in Carolina, and was large ; 
and, my Heart being deeply engaged, I was drawn forth 
into a fervent Labour amongst them. 

From hence I went back into Virginia, and had a 
Meeting near James Cowpland's; it was a Time of 
inward Suffering; but, through the Goodness of the 
Lord, I was made content: Then to another Meeting; 
where, through the Renewings of pure Love, we had a 
very comfortable Season. 

Travelling up and down of late, I have had renewed 
Evidences, that to be faithful to the Lord, and con- 
tent with his Will concerning me, is a most necessary 
and useful Lesson for me to be learning; looking 
less at the Effects of my Labour, than at the pure 
Motion and Reality of the Concern, as it arises from 
heavenly Love. In the Lord Jehovah is everlasting 
Strength; and as the Mind, by a humble Resignation, is 
united to him; and we utter Words from an inward 
Knowledge that they arise from the heavenly Spring, 
though our Way may be difficult, and require close Atten- 
tion to keep in it; and though the Manner in which we 
may be led may tend to our own Abasement; yet, if we 
continue in Patience and Meekness, heavenly Peace is 
the Reward of our Labours. 

From thence I went to Curies Meeting; which, though 
small, was reviving to the Honest-hearted. Thence to 
Black-Creek and Caroline Meetings; from whence, accom- 
panied by William Standley, before-mentioned, we rode 

66 John Woolman's Journal 

to Goose-Creek, being much through the Woods, and about 
one hundred Miles. — We lodged the first Night at a 
Publick-house ; the second, in the Woods; and, the next 
Day, we reached a Friend's House, at Goose-Creek. In 
the Woods we lay under some Disadvantage, having no 
Fire-works nor Bells for our Horses; but we stopped a 
little before Night, and let them feed on the wild Grass 
which was in plenty; in the mean Time cutting with our 
Knives a Store against Night, and then tying them, and 
gathering some Bushes under an Oak, we lay down; but, 
the Musquettoes being plenty, and the Ground damp, I 
slept but little : Thus, lying in the Wildnemess, and look- 
ing at the Stars, I was led to contemplate on the Condi- 
tion of our first Parents, when they were sent forth from 
the Garden; but the Almighty, though they had been 
disobedient, continued to be a Father to them, and 
shewed them what tended to their Felicity, as intelli- 
gent Creatures, and was acceptable to him. To provide 
Things relative to our outward Living, in the Way of 
true Wisdom, is good; and the Gift of improving in 
Things useful is a good Gift, and comes from the Father 
of Lights. Many have had this Gift; and, from Age to 
Age, there have been Improvements of this Kind made 
in the World: But some, not keeping to the pure Gift, 
have, in the creaturely Cunning and Self-Exaltation, 
sought out many Inventions; which Inventions of Men 
are distinct from that Uprightness in which Man was 
created; as the first Motion to them was evil, so the 
Effects have been and are evil. At this Day, it is as 
necessary for us constantly to attend on the heavenly 
Gift, to be qualified to use rightly the good Things in 
this Life amidst great Improvements, as it was for our 
first Parents, when they were without any Improvements, 
without any Friend or Father but God only. 

I was at a Meeting at Goose-Creek ; and next at a 
Monthly-meeting at Fairfax ; where, through the gracious 
Dealing of the Almighty with us, his Power prevailed 
over many Hearts. Thence to Manoquacy and Pipe- 
Creek, in Maryland; at both which Places I had Cause 
humbly to adore him, who supported me through many 

John Woolman*s Journal 67 

Exercises, and by whose Help I was enabled to reach the 
true Witness in the Hearts of others: There were some 
hopeful young People in those Parts. Thence I had 
Meetings at John Everit^s in Monalen, and at Huntingdon ; 
and I was made humbly thankful to the Lord, who opened 
my Heart amongst the People in these new Settlements, 
so that it was a Time of Encouragement to the Honest- 

At Monalen, a Friend gave me some Account of a 
religious Society among the Dutch, called Mennonists ; 
and, amongst other Things, related a Passage in Substance 
as follows: — One of the Mennonists having Acquaintance 
with a Man of another Society at a considerable Distance, 
and being with his Waggon on Business near the House 
of his said Acquaintance, and Night coming on, he had 
Thoughts of putting up with him; but passing by his 
Fields, and observing the distressed Appearance of his 
Slaves, he kindled a Fire in the Woods hard by, and lay 
there that Night: His said Acquaintance hearing where 
he lodged, and afterward meeting the Mennonist, told 
him of it; adding, he should have been heartily welcome 
at his House; and, from their Acquaintance in former 
Time, wondered at his Conduct in that Case. The Men- 
nonist replied. Ever since I lodged by thy Field, I have 
wanted an Opportunity to speak with thee: The Matter 
was; I intended to have come to thy House for Enter- 
tainment, but, seeing thy Slaves at their Work, and 
observing the Manner of their Dress, I had no liking to 
come to partake with thee : Then admonished him to use 
them with more Humanity ; and added. As I lay by 
the Fire that Night, I thought that, as I was a Man of 
Substance, thou wouldst have received me freely; but, 
if I had been as poor as one of thy Slaves, and had no 
Power to help myself, I should have received from thy 
Hand no kinder Usage than they. 

Hence I was at three Meetings in my Way; and so I 
went Home, under a humbling Sense of the gracious 
Dealings of the Lord with me, in preserving me through 
many Trials and Afflictions in my Journey. I was out 
about two Months, and travelled about eleven hundred 
and fifty Miles. 


The draughting of the Militia in New- Jersey to serve in the 
A rmy ; with some Observations on the State of the Members 
of our Society at that Time — His Visit to Friends in 
Pennsylvania, accompanied by Benjamin Jones — Pro- 
ceedings at the Monthly, Quarterly, and Yearly -Meetings, 
in Philadelphia, respecting those who heep Slaves 

On the ninth Day of the eighth Month^ in the Year 
1757, at Night, Orders came to the military Officers in 
our County {Burlington)^ directing them to draught the 
Militia, and prepare a Number of Men to go off as Soldiers, 
to the Relief of the English at Fort-William-Henry j in 
New-York Government: A few Days after which there 
was a general Review of the Militia at Mount-Holly, and 
a Number of Men chosen and sent off under some Officers. 
Shortly after, there came Orders to draught three Times 
as many, to hold themselves in Readiness to march when 
fresh Orders came: And, on the 17th Day of the eighth 
Month, there was a Meeting of the military Officers at 
Mount-Holly, who agreed on a Draught; and Orders were 
sent to the Men, so chosen, to meet their respective 
Captains at set Times and Places ; those in our Township 
to meet at Mount-Holly ; amongst whom was a con- 
siderable Number of our Society. My Mind being affected 
herewith, I had fresh Opportunity to see and consider the 
Advantage of living in the real Substance of Religion, 
where Practice doth harmonize with Principle. Amongst 
the Officers are Men of Understanding, who have some 
Regard to Sincerity where they see it; and in the Exe- 
cution of their Office, when they have Men to deal with 
whom they believe to be upright-hearted, to put them 
to Trouble, on account of Scruples of Conscience, is 
a painful Task, and likely to be avoided as much as 
easily may be: But where Men profess to be so meek 


John Woolman's Journal 69 

and heavenly-minded, and to have their Trust so firmly 
settled in God, that they cannot join in Wars, and yet, 
by their Spirit and Conduct in common Life, manifest a 
contrary Disposition, their Difficulties are great at such 
a Time. 

Officers, in great Anxiety, endeavouring to get Troops 
to answer the Demands of their Superiors, seeing Men, 
who are insincere, pretend Scruple of Conscience in Hopes 
of being excused from a dangerous Employment, such are 
likely to be roughly handled. In this Time of Commo- 
tion some of our young Men left the Parts, and tarried 
abroad till it was over; some came, and proposed to go as 
Soldiers; others appeared to have a real tender Scruple 
in their Minds against joining in Wars, and were much 
humbled under the Apprehension of a Trial so near: I 
had Conversation with several of them to my Satisfaction, 
At the set Time when the Captain came to Town, some 
of those last-mentioned went and told him in Substance 
as follows : — ^That they could not bear Arms for Conscience- 
sake ; nor could they hire any to go in their Places, being 
resigned as to the Event of it: At length the Captain 
acquainted them all, that they might return Home for 
the present, and, required them to provide themselves 
as Soldiers, and to be in Readiness to march when called 
upon. This was such a Time as I had not seen before; 
and yet I may say, with Thankfulness to the Lord, that 
I believed this Trial was intended for our Good; and I 
was favoured with Resignation to him. The French 
Army, taking the Fort they were besieging, destroyed it 
and went away: The Company of Men first draughted, 
after some Days march, had Orders to return Home; and 
those on the second Draught were no more called upon 
on that Occasion. 

On the fourth Day of the fourth Month, in the Year 
1758, Orders came to some Officers in Mount-Holly, to 
prepare Quarters, a short Time, for about one hundred 
Soldiers: And an Officer and two other Men, all In- 
habitants of our Town, came to my House; and the 
Officer told me, that he came to speak with me, to provide 
Lodging and Entertainment for two Soldiers, there being 

70 John Woolman's Journal 

six Shillings a Week per Man allowed as Pay for it. The 
Case being new and unexpected, I made no Answer 
suddenly ; but sat a Time silent, my Mind being inward : 
I was fully convinced, that the Proceedings in Wars are 
inconsistent with the Purity of the Christian Religion: 
And to be hired to entertain Men, who were then under 
Pay as Soldiers, was a Difficulty with me. I expected 
they had legal Authority for what they did; and, after 
a short Time, I said to the Officer, If the Men are sent 
here for Entertainment, I believe I shall not refuse to 
admit them into my House; but the Nature of the Case 
is such, that I expect I cannot keep them on Hire: One 
of the Men intimated, that he thought I might do it 
consistent with my religious Principles; To which I 
made no Reply; as believing Silence at that Time best 
for me. Though they spake of two, there came only one, 
who tarried at my House about two Weeks, and behaved 
himself civilly; and when the Officer came to pay me, 
I told him I could not take Pay for it, having admitted 
him into my House in a passive Obedience to Authority. 
I was on Horseback when he spake to me: And, as I 
turned from him, he said, he was obliged to me : To which 
I said nothing; but, thinking on the Expression, I grew 
uneasy; and afterwards, being near where he lived, I 
went and told him on what Grounds I refused taking Pay 
for keeping the Soldier. 

Near the Beginning of the Year 1758, I went one 
Evening, in Company with a Friend, to visit a sick 
Person; and, before our Return, we were told of a 
Woman living near, who, of late, had several Days been 
disconsolate, occasioned by a Dream; wherein Death, 
and the Judgments of the Almighty after Death, were 
represented to her Mind in a moving Manner: Her Sad- 
ness on that Account, being worn off, the Friend, with 
whom I was in Company, went to see her, and had some 
religious Conversation with her and her Husband: With 
this Visit they were somewhat affected; and the Man, 
with many Tears, expressed his Satisfaction; and, in a 
short Time after, the poor Man being on the River in a 
Storm of Wind, he, with one more, was drowned. 

John Woolman's Journal 71 

In the eighth Month of the Year 1758, having had 
Drawings in my Mind to be at the Quarterly-meeting 
in Chester County, and at some Meetings in the County 
of Philadelphia, I went first to said Quarterly-meeting, 
which was large, and several weighty Matters came under 
Consideration and Debate; and the Lord was pleased to 
qualify some of his Servants with Strength and Firmness 
to bear the Burthen of the Day : Though I said but little, 
my Mind was deeply exercised; and, under a Sense of 
God's Love, in the Anointing and fitting some young Men 
for his Work, I was comforted, and my Heart was 
tendered before him. From hence I went to the Youth's 
Meeting at Darby, where my beloved Friend and Brother, 
Benjamin Jones, met me, by an Appointment before I 
left Home, to join in the Visit: And we were at Radnor, 
Merion, Richland, North-Wales, Plymouth, and Abington 
Meetings; and had Cause to bow in Reverence before 
the Lord, our gracious God, by whose Help Way was 
opened for us from day to day. I was out about two 
Weeks, and rode about two hundred Miles. 

The Monthly-meeting of Philadelphia having been under 
a Concern on Account of some Friends who this Summer 
(1758) had bought Negro Slaves, the said Meeting moved 
it to their Quarterly-meeting, to have the Minute re- 
considered in the Yearly-meeting, which was made last 
on that Subject: And the said Quarterly-meeting ap- 
pointed a Committee to consider it, and report to their 
next; which Committee having met once and adjourned, 
I going to Philadelphia to meet a Committee of the 
Yearly-meeting, was in Town the Evening on which the 
Quarterly-meeting's Committee met the second Time; 
and, finding an Inclination to sit with them, was, with 
some others, admitted; and Friends had a weighty 
Conference on the Subject: And, soon after their next 
Quarterly-meeting, I heard that the Case was coming to 
our Yearly-meeting; which brought a weighty Exercise 
upon me, and under a Sense of my own Infirmities, and 
the great Danger I felt of turning aside from perfect 
Purity, my Mind was often drawn to retire alone, and put 
up my Prayers to the Lord, that he would be graciously 

72 John Woolman*s Journal 

pleased to strengthen me; that, setting aside all Views 
of Self-interest^ and the Friendship of this World, I might 
stand fully resigned to his holy Will. 

In this Yearly-meeting, several weighty Matters were 
considered; and, toward the last, that in Relation to 
dealing with Persons who purchase Slaves. During the 
several Sittings of the said Meeting, my Mind was fre- 
quently covered with inward Prayer, and I could say 
with David, that Tears were my Meat Day and Night. 
The Case of Slave-keeping lay heavy upon me; nor did 
I find any Engagement to speak directly to any other 
Matter before the Meeting. Now, when this Case was 
opened, several faithful Friends spake weightily thereto, 
with which I was comforted; and, feeling a Concern to 
cast in my Mite, I said in Substance as follows : 

" In the Difficulties attending us in this Life, nothing 
is more precious than the Mind of Truth inwardly mani- 
fested; and it is my earnest Desire that, in this weighty 
Matter we may be so truly humbled as to be favoured 
with a clear Understanding of the Mind of Truth, and 
follow it; this would be of more Advantage to the Society, 
than any Medium not in the Clearness of divine Wisdom. 
The Case is difficult to some who have them; but if such 
set aside all Self-interest, and come to be weaned from 
the Desire of getting Estates, or even from holding them 
together, when Truth requires the Contrary, I believe 
Way will open that they will know how to steer through 
those Difficulties." 

Many Friends appeared to be deeply bowed under the 
Weight of the Work; and manifested much Firmness in 
their Love to the Cause of Truth and universal Righteous- 
ness on the Earth: And, though none did openly justify 
the Practice of Slave-keeping in general, yet some appeared 
concerned, lest the Meeting should go into such Measures 
as might give Uneasiness to many Brethren; alledging, 
that if Friends patiently continued under the Exercise, 
the Lord, in Time to come might open a Way for the 
Deliverance of these People: And, I finding an Engage- 
ment to speak, said, " My Mind is often led to consider 
the Purity of the divine Being, and the Justice of his 

John Woolman's Journal 73 

Judgments; and herein my Soul is covered with Awful- 
ness: I cannot omit to hint of some Cases, where People 
have not been treated with the Purity of Justice, and 
the Event hath been lamentable: Many Slaves on this 
Continent are oppressed, and their Cries have reached the 
Ears of the Most High. Such are the Purity and Certainty 
of his Judgments, that he cannot be partial in our Favour. 
In infinite Love and Goodness, he hath opened our 
Understandings, from one Time to another, concerning 
our Duty towards this People; and it is not a Time for 
Delay. Should we now be sensible of what he requires 
of us, and, through a Respect to the private Interest of 
some Persons, or through a Regard to some Friendships 
which do not stand on an immutable Foundation, neglect 
to do our Duty in Firmness and Constancy, still waiting 
for some extraordinary Means to bring about their Deliver- 
ance, it may be by terrible Things in Righteousness God 
may answer us in this Matter.'* 

Many faithful Brethren laboured with great Firmness; 
and the Love of Truth, in a good Degree, prevailed. 
Several Friends, who had Negroes, expressed their Desire 
that a Rule might be made, to deal with such Friends 
as Offenders who bought Slaves in future : To this it was 
answered, that the Root of this Evil would never be 
effectually struck at, until a thorough Search was made 
into the Circumstances of such Friends as kept Negroes, 
with respect to the Righteousness of their Motives in 
keeping them, that impartial Justice might be administered 
throughout. Several Friends expressed their Desire, that 
a Visit might be made to such Friends as kept Slaves; 
and many Friends said, that they believed Liberty was 
the Negroes Right: To which, at length, no Opposition 
was made publickly. A Minute was made more full on 
that Subject than any heretofore; and the Names of 
several Friends entered, who were free to join in a Visit 
to such as kept Slaves. 


His visiting the Quarterly-meetings in Chester County ; and 
afterwards joining with Daniel Stanton and John Scar- 
borough in a Visit to such as kept Slaves there — Some 
Observations on the Conduct such should maintain as are 
concerned to speak in Meetings for Discipline — Several 
more Visits to such as kept Slaves ; and to Friends near 
Salem — Some Account of the Yearly-meeting in the Year 
1759.' ^wrf of the increasing Concern, in divers Provinces, 
to labour against buying and keeping Slaves — The Yearly- 
meeting Epistle 

On the eleventh Day of the eleventh Month^ in the Year 
1758^ I set out for Concord ; the Quarterly-meeting, here- 
tofore held there, was now, by reason of a great Increase 
of Members, divided into two by the Agreement of 
Friends, at our last Yearly-meeting. Here I met with 
our beloved Friends, Samuel Spavold and Mary Kirby, 
from England, and with Joseph White, from Bucks 
County, who had taken Leave of his Family in order to 
go on a religious Visit to Friends in England; and, 
through divine Goodness, we were favoured with a 
strengthening Opportunity together. 

After this Meeting I joined with my Friends, Daniel 
Stanton and John Scarborough, in visiting Friends 
who had Slaves; and at Night we had a Family-meeting 
at William Trimble's, many young People being there; 
and it was a precious reviving Opportunity. Next Morn- 
ing we had a comfortable Sitting with a sick Neighbour; 
and thence to the Burial of the Corpse of a Friend at 
Uwchland Meeting, at which were many People, and it 
was a Time of divine Favour; after which, we visited 
some who had Slaves ; and, at Night, had a Family-meet- 
ing at a Friend's House, where the Channel of Gospel- 
love was opened, and my Mind was comforted after a 
hard Day's Labour. The next Day we were at Goshen 
Monthly-meeting; and thence, on the eighteenth Day of 


John Woolman's Journal 75 

the eleventh Month, in the Year 1758, attended the 
Quarterly-meeting at London-Grove, it being the first held 
at that Place. Here we met again with all the before- 
mentioned Friends, and had some edifying Meetings: 
And, near the Conclusion of the Meeting for Business, 
Friends were incited to Constancy in supporting the 
Testimony of Truth, and reminded of the Necessity which 
the Disciples of Christ are under to attend principally to 
his Business, as he is pleased to open it to us: And to 
be particularly careful to have our Minds redeemed from 
the Love of Wealth; to have our outward Affairs in as 
little Room as may be; that no temporal Concerns may 
entangle our Affections, or hinder us from diligently 
following the Dictates of Truth, in labouring to promote 
the pure Spirit of Meekness and Heavenly-mindedness 
amongst the Children of Men in these Days of Calamity 
and Distress, wherein God is visiting our Land with his 
just Judgments. 

Each of these Quarterly-meetings was large, and sat 
near eight Hours. Here I had Occasion to consider, that 
it was a weighty Thing to speak much in large Meetings 
for Business : First, except our Minds are rightly prepared, 
and we clearly understand the Case we speak to, instead 
of forwarding, we hinder. Business, and make more 
Labour for those on whom the Burthen of the Work is 

If selfish Views, or a partial Spirit, have any Room in 
our Minds, we are unfit for the Lord's Work; if we have 
a clear Prospect of the Business, and proper Weight 
on our Minds to speak, it behoves us to avoid useless 
Apologies and Repetitions: Where People are gathered 
from far, and adjourning a Meeting of Business is attended 
with great Difficulty, it behoves all to be cautious how 
they detain a Meeting; especially when they have sat 
six or seven Hours, and have a great Distance to ride 
Home. After this Meeting I rode Home. 

In the Beginning of the twelfth Month of the Year 1758 
I joined in Company with my Friends, John Sykes and 
Daniel Stanton, in visiting such as had Slaves: Some, 
whose Hearts were rightly exercised about them, appeared 

G 402 


76 John Woolman's Journal 

to be glad of our Visit; but in some Places our Way was 
more difficult; and I often saw the Necessity of keeping 
down to that Root from whence our Concern proceeded; 
and have Cause, in reverent Thankfulness, humbly to 
bow down before the Lord, who was near to me, and 
preserved my Mind in Calmness under some sharp Con- 
flicts, and begat a Spirit of Sympathy and Tenderness 
in me toward some who were grievously entangled by 
the Spirit of this World. 

In the first Month of the Year 1759, having found my 
Mind drawn to visit some of the more active Members, 
in our Society at Philadelphia, who had Slaves, I met my 
Friend John Churchman there, by an Agreement: And 
we continued about a Week in the City. We visited 
some that were sick, and some Widows and their Families ; 
and the other Part of our Time was mostly employed in 
visiting such as had Slaves. — It was a Time of deep 
Exercise, looking often to the Lord for his Assistance; 
who, in unspeakable Kindness, favoured us with the 
Influence of that Spirit, which crucifies to the Greatness 
and Splendour of this World, and enabled us to go through 
some heavy Labours, in which we found Peace. 

On the twenty-fourth Day of the third Month of this 
Year, I was at our general Spring-meeting at Philadelphia: 
After which, I again joined with John Churchman on 
a Visit to some more who had Slaves in Philadelphia ; 
and, with Thankfulness to our heavenly Father, I may 
say, that divine Love and a true sympathising Tender- 
ness of Heart prevailed at Times in this Service. 

Having, at Times, perceived a Shyness in some Friends, 
of considerable Note, towards me, I found an Engage- 
ment in Gospel Love to pay a Visit to one of them ; and, 
as I dwelt under the Exercise, I felt a Resignedness in 
my Mind to go; So I went, and told him, in private, I 
had a Desire to have an Opportunity with him alone; 
to which he readily agreed : Ajid then, in the Fear of the 
Lord, Things relating to that Shyness were searched to 
the Bottom; and we had a large Conference, which, I 
believe, was of Use to both of us, and am thankful that 
Way was opened for it. 

John Woolman's Journal jj 

On the fourteenth Day of the sixth Month, in the same 
Year, having felt Drawings in my Mind to visit Friends 
about Salem, and having the Approbation of our Monthly- 
meeting therein, I attended their Quarterly-meeting, and 
was out seven Days, and at seven Meetings; in some of 
which I was chiefly silent, and in others, through the 
baptizing Power of Truth, my Heart was enlarged in 
heavenly Love, and found a near Fellowship with the 
Brethren and Sisters, in the manifold Trials attending 
their Christian Progress through this World. 

In the seventh Month, I found an increasing Concern 
on my Mind to visit some active Members in our Society 
who had Slaves; and, having no Opportunity of the 
Company of such as were named on the Minutes of the 
Yearly-meeting, I went alone to their Houses, and, in 
the Fear of the Lord, acquainted them with the Exercise 
I was under: And thus, sometimes, by a few Words, I 
found myself discharged from a heavy Burthen. 

After this, our Friend John Churchman, coming into 
our Province with a View to be at some Meetings, and 
to join again in the Visit to those who had Slaves, I bore 
him Company in the said Visit to some active Members, 
and found inward Satisfaction. 

At our Yearly-meeting, in the Year 1759, we had some 
weighty Seasons; where the Power of Truth was largely 
extended, to the strengthening of the Honest-minded. 
As Friends read over the Epistles, to be sent to the 
Yearly-meetings along this Continent, I observed in most 
of them, both this Year and last, it was recommended 
to Friends to labour against buying and keeping Slaves; 
and in some of them closely treated upon. This Practice 
had long been a heavy Exercise to me, and I have often 
waded through mortifying Labours on that Account; 
and, at Times, in some Meetings been almost alone therein. 
Now, observing the increasing Concern in our religious 
Society, and seeing how the Lord was raising up and 
qualifying Servants for his Work, not only in this Respect, 
but for promoting the Cause of Truth in general, I was 
humbly bowed in Thankfulness before him. 

This Meeting continued near a Week; and, for several 

78 John Woolman's Journal 

Days, in the fore Part of it, my Mind was drawn into a 
deep inward Stillness ; and being, at Times, covered with 
the Spirit of Supplication, my Heart was secretly poured 
out before the Lord: And, near the Conclusion of the 
Meeting for Business, Way opened, that, in the pure 
Flowings of divine Love, I expressed what lay upon me; 
which, as it then arose in my Mind, was " first to shew 
how Deep answers to Deep in the Hearts of the Sincere and 
Upright; though, in their different Growths, they may 
not all have attained to the same Clearness in some Points 
relating to our Testimony: And I was led to mention 
the Integrity and Constancy of many Martyrs, who gave 
their Lives for the Testimony of Jesus; and yet, in some 
Points, held Doctrines distinguishable from some which 
we hold : And that, in all Ages, where People were faith- 
ful to the Light and Understanding which the Most High 
afforded them, they found Acceptance with him; and 
^hat now, though there are different Ways of Thinking 
amongst us in some Particulars, yet, if we mutually kept 
to that Spirit and Power which crucifies to the World, 
which teaches us to be content with Things really needful, 
and to avoid all Superfluities, giving up our Hearts to 
fear and serve the Lord, true Unity may still be preserved 
amongst us: And that if such, as were, at Times, under 
Sufferings on Account of some Scruples of Conscience, 
kept low and humble, and in their Conduct in Life mani- 
fested a Spirit of true Charity, it would be more likely to 
reach the Witness in others, and be of more Service in 
the Church, than if their Sufferings were attended with 
a contrary Spirit and Conduct." In which Exercise I 
was drawn into a sympathizing Tenderness with the 
Sheep of Christ, however distinguished one from another 
in this World ; and the like Disposition appeared to spread 
over others in the Meeting. Great is the Goodness of 
the Lord toward his poor Creatures ! 

An Epistle went forth from this Yearly-meeting, which 
I think good to give a Place in this Journal; being as 
follows : 

John Woolman's Journal 79 

From the Yearly-meeting held at Philadelphia, for 
Pennsylvania and New-Jersey, from the twenty- 
second Day of the ninth Month, to the twenty-eighth 
Day of the same, inclusive, 1759. 

To the Quarterly and Monthly-meetings of Friends 
belonging to the said Yearly-meeting. 

" Dearly beloved Friends and Brethren, — In an awful 
Sense of the Wisdom and Goodness of the Lord our God, 
whose tender Mercies have long been continued to us in 
this Land, we affectionately salute you, with sincere and 
fervent Desires, that we may reverently regard the Dis- 
pensations of his Providence, and improve under them. 

The Empires and Kingdoms of the Earth are subject 
to his almighty Power: He is the God of the Spirits of 
all Flesh, and deals with his People agreeable to that 
Wisdom, the Depth whereof is to us unsearchable: We, 
in these Provinces, may say, he hath, as a gracious and 
tender Parent, dealt bountifully with us, even from the 
Days of our Fathers: It was he who strengthened them 
to labour through the Difficulties attending the Improve- 
ment of a Wilderness, and made Way for them in the 
Hearts of the Natives; so that by them they were com- 
forted in Times of Want and Distress: It was by the 
gracious Influences of his holy Spirit, that they were 
disposed to work Righteousness, and walk uprightly 
one towards another, and towards the Natives, and in 
Life and Conversation to manifest the Excellency of the 
Principles and Doctrines of the Christian Religion; and 
thereby they retain their Esteem and Friendship : Whilst 
they were labouring for the Necessaries of Life, many of 
them were fervently engaged to promote Piety and Virtue 
in the Earth, and educate their Children in the Fear of 
the Lord. 

If we carefully consider the peaceable Measures pursued 
in the first Settlement of the Land, and that Freedom 
from the Desolations of Wars which for a long Time we 
enjoyed, we shall find ourselves under strong Obligations 

8o John Woolman's Journal 

to the Almighty, who, when the Earth is so generally 
polluted with Wickedness, gave us a Being in a Part so 
signally favoured with Tranquility and Plenty, and in 
which the Glad-tidings of the Gospel of Christ are so 
freely published, that we may justly say with the Psalmist, 
" What shall we render unto the Lord for all his Benefits ?" 

Our own real Good, and the Good of our Posterity, in 
some Measure, depend on the Part we act; and it nearly 
concerns us to try our Foundations impartially. Such 
are the different Rewards of the Just and Unjust in a 
future State, that, to attend diligently to the Dictates of 
the Spirit of Christ, to devote ourselves to his Service, 
and engage fervently in his Cause, during our short Stay 
in this World, is a Choice well becoming a free intelligent 
Creature; we shall thus clearly see and consider that the 
Dealings of God with Mankind in a national Capacity, 
as recorded in Holy Writ, do sufficiently evidence the 
Truth of that Saying, " It is Righteousness which exalte th 
a Nation; " and though he doth not at all Times suddenly 
execute his Judgments on a sinful People in this Life, 
yet we see, by many Instances, that where " Men follow 
lying Vanities, they forsake their own Mercies; " and as 
a proud selfish Spirit prevails and spreads among a People, 
so partial Judgment, Oppression, Discord, Envy, and 
Confusions, increase, and Provinces and Kingdoms are 
made to drink the Cup of Adversity as a Reward of their 
own Doings. Thus the inspired Prophet, reasoning with 
the degenerated Jews, saith, " Thine own Wickedness 
shall correct thee, and thy Backslidings shall reprove 
thee : Know, therefore, that it is an evil Thing and bitter, 
that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God, and that 
my Fear is not in thee, saith the Lord God of Hosts." 
Jer. ii. 19. 

The God of our Fathers, who hath bestowed on us 
many Benefits, furnished a Table for us in the Wilderness, 
and made the Desarts and solitary Places to rejoice; he 
doth now mercifully call upon us to serve him more 
faithfully. — We may truly say, with the Prophet, " It 
is his Voice which crieth to the City, and Men of Wisdom 
see his Name: They regard the Rod, and him who hath 

John Woolman's Journal 8 i 

appointed it." — ^People, who look chiefly at Things out- 
ward, too little consider the original Cause of the present 
Troubles; but such as fear the Lord, and think often 
upon his Name, see and feel that a wrong Spirit is spread- 
ing among the Inhabitants of our Country; that the 
Hearts of many are waxed fat, and their Ears dull of 
hearing; that the Most High, in his Visitations to us, 
instead of calling, lifteth up his Voice and crieth; he 
crieth to our Country, and his Voice waxeth louder 
and louder. In former Wars between the English and 
other Nations, since the Settlement of our Provinces, the 
Calamities attending them have fallen chiefly on other 
Places, but now of late they have reached to our Borders ; 
many of our fellow Subjects have suffered on and near 
our Frontiers, some have been slain in Battle, some killed 
in their Houses, and some in their Fields, some wounded 
and left in great Misery, and others separated from their 
Wives and little Children, who have been carried Captives 
among the Indians : We have seen Men and Women, 
who have been Witnesses of these Scenes of Sorrow, and 
been reduced to Want, have come to our Houses asking 
Relief. — It is not long since it was the Case of many 
young Men, in one of these Provinces, to be draughted, 
in order to be taken as Soldiers; some were at that Time 
in great Distress, and had Occasion to consider that their 
Lives had been too little conformable to the Purity and 
Spirituality of that Religion which we profess, and found 
themselves too little acquainted with that inward Humility, 
in which true Fortitude to endure Hardness for the Truth's 
Sake is experienced. — ^Many Parents were concerned for 
their Children, and in that Time of Trial were led to 
consider, that their Care, to get outward Treasure for 
them, had been greater than their Care for their Settle- 
ment in that Religion which crucifieth to the World, and 
enableth to bear a clear Testimony to the peaceable 
Government of the Messiah. These Trouble s are removed, 
and for a Time we are released from them. 

Let us not forget that " The Most High hath his Way 
in the Deep, in Clouds and in thick Darkness " — that it 
is his Voice which crieth to the City and to the Country; 

82 John Woolman's Journal 

and oh! that these loud and awakening Cries may have 
a proper Effect upon us, that heavier Chastisement may 
not become necessary! For though Things, as to the 
Outward, may, for a short Time, afford a pleasing Prospect; 
yet, while a selfish Spirit, that is not subject to the Cross 
of Christ, continueth to spread and prevail, there can be 
no long Continuance in outward Peace and Tranquility. 
If we desire an Inheritance incorruptible, and to be at 
Rest in that State of Peace and Happiness, which ever 
continues; if we desire, in this Life, to dwell under the 
Favour and Protection of that almighty Being, whose 
Habitation is in Holiness, whose Ways are all equal, and 
whose Anger is now kindled because of our Backslidings ; 
let us then awfully regard these Beginnings of his fore 
Judgments, and, with Abasement and Humiliation turn 
to him, whom we have offended. 

Contending with one equal in Strength is an uneasy 
Exercise; but if the Lord is become our Enemy, if we 
persist to contend with him who is omnipotent, our Over- 
throw will be unavoidable. 

Do we feel an affectionate Regard to Posterity; and 
are we employed to promote their Happiness? Do our 
Minds, in Things outward, look beyond our own Dis- 
solution; and are we contriving for the Prosperity of our 
Children after us? Let us then, like wise Builders, lay 
the Foundation deep; and, by our constant uniform 
Regard to an inward Piety and Virtue, let them see that 
we really value it : Let us labour, in the Fear of the Lord, 
that their innocent Minds, while young and tender, may 
be preserved from Corruptions; that, as they advance 
in Age, they may rightly understand their true Interest, 
may consider the Uncertainty of temporal Things, and, 
above all, have their Hope and Confidence firmly settled 
in the Blessing of that Almighty Being, who inhabits 
Eternity, and preserves and supports the World. 

In all our Cares, about worldly Treasures, let us steadily 
bear in Mind, that Riches, possessed by Children who do 
not truly serve God, are likely to prove Snares that may 
more grievously entangle them in that Spirit of Selfish- 
ness and Exaltation, which stands in Opposition to real 

John Woolman's Journal 83 

Peace and Happiness; and renders them Enemies to the 
Cross of Christy who submit to the Influence of it. 

To keep a watchful eye towards real Objects of Charity, 
to visit the Poor in their lonesome Dwelling-places, to 
comfort them who, through the Dispensations of divine 
Providence, are in strait and painful Circumstances in 
this Life, and steadily to endeavour to honour God with 
our Substance, from a real Sense of the Love of Christ 
influencing our Minds thereto, is more likely to bring a 
Blessing to our Children, and will afford more Satisfaction 
to a Christian favoured with Plenty, than an earnest 
Desire to collect much Wealth to leave behind us; for 
" Here we have no continuing City; " may we therefore 
diligently " seek one that is to come, whose Builder and 
Maker is God." 

" Finally, Brethren, whatsoever Things are true, 
whatsoever Things are just, whatsoever Things are pure, 
whatsoever Things are lovely, whatsoever Things are of 
good Report; if there be any Virtue, if there be any 
Praise, think on these Things and do them, and the God 
of Peace shall be with you." 

Signed, by Appointment, and on Behalf of our said 
Meeting, by seven Friends. 

On the twenty-eighth Day of the eleventh Month, in 
the Year 1759, I was at the Quarterly-meeting in Bucks 
County: This Day being the Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders, my Heart was enlarged in the Love of Jesus 
Christ; and the Favour of the Most High was extended 
to us in that and the ensuing Meeting. 

I had Conversation, at my Lodging, with my beloved 
Friend, Samuel Eastburn; who expressed a Concern to 
join in a Visit to some Friends, in that County, who had 
Negroes ; and as I had felt a Draught in my Mind to that 
Work in the said County, came Home and put Things 
in Order: On the eleventh Day of the twelfth Month 
following, I went over the River; and on the next Day 
was at Buckingham Meeting ; where, through the Descend- 
ings of heavenly Dew, my Mind was comforted, and drawn 
into a near Unity with the Flock of Jesus Christ. 

84 John Woolman's Journal 

Entering upon this Visit appeared weighty : And before 
I left Home my Mind was often sad ; under which Exercise 
I felt, at Times, the Holy Spirit, which helps our In- 
firmities; through which, in private, my Prayers were, 
at Times, put up to God, that he would be pleased to 
purge me from all Selfishness, that I might be strengthened 
to discharge my Duty faithfully, how hard soever to the 
natural Part. We proceeded on the Visit in a weighty 
Frame of Spirit, and went to the Houses of the most 
active Members, throughout the Country, who had 
Negroes; and, through the Goodness of the Lord, my 
Mind was preserved in Resignation in Times of Trial, 
and, though the Work was hard to Nature, yet through 
the Strength of that Love which is stronger than Death, 
Tenderness of Heart was often felt amongst us in our 
Visits, and we parted from several Families with greater 
Satisfaction than we expected. 

We visited Joseph White's Family, he being in 
England; and also a Family-sitting at the House of an 
Elder who bore us Company, and was at Makefield on 
a First-day: At all which Times my Heart was truly 
thankful to the Lord, who was graciously pleased to 
renew his Loving-kindness to us, his poor Servants, 
uniting us together in his Work. 


His Visit, in Company with Samuel Eastburn, to Long- 
Island, Rhode-Island, Boston, etc. in New-England — 
Remarks on the Slave-Trade at Newport, and his Exercise 
on that A ccount ; also on Lotteries — Some Observations 
on the Island of Nantucket 

Having, for some Time past, felt a Sympathy in my 
Mind with Friends Eastward, I opened my Concern in 
our Monthly-meeting; and, obtaining a Certificate, set 
forward on the seventeenth Day of the fourth Month, 
in the Year 1760, joining in Company, by a previous 
Agreement, with my beloved Friend, Samuel Eastburn. 
We had Meetings at Woodbridge, Rahaway, and Plain- 
field ; and were at their Monthly-meeting of Ministers 
and Elders in Rahaway. We laboured under some Dis- 
couragement; but, through the invisible Power of Truth, 
our Visit was made reviving to the Lowly-minded, with 
whom I felt a near Unity of Spirit, being much reduced 
in my Mind. We passed on and visited the chief of the 
Meetings on Long-Island. It was my Concern, from Day 
to Day, to say no more nor less than what the Spirit of 
Truth opened in me; being jealous over myself, lest I 
should speak any Thing to make my Testimony look 
agreeable to that Mind in People, which is not in pure 
Obedience to the Cross of Christ. 

The Spring of the Ministry was often low; and, through 
the subjecting Power of Truth, we were kept low with it; 
and from Place to Place, such whose Hearts were truly 
concerned for the Cause of Christ, appeared to be com- 
forted in our Labours; and though it was in general 
a Time of Abasement of the Creature, yet, through his 
Goodness, who is a Helper of the Poor, we had some 
truly edifying Seasons, both in Meetings, and in Families 
where we tarried; and sometimes found Strength to 
labour earnestly with the Unfaithful, especially with 


86 John Woolman's Journal 

those whose Station in Families, or in the Society, was 
such, that their Example had a powerful Tendency to 
open the Way for others to go aside from the Purity and 
Soundness of the blessed Truth. At Jericho, on Long- 
Island, I wrote Home as follows : 

2/^th of the 4th Month, 1760. 

" Dearly beloved Wife, — We are favoured with Health; 
have been at sundry Meetings in East- Jersey, and on this 
Island : My Mind hath been much in an inward watchful 
Frame since I left thee, greatly desiring that our Proceed- 
ings may be singly in the Will of our heavenly Father. 

" As the present Appearance of Things is not joyous, 
I have been much shut up from outward Cheerfulness, 
remembering that Promise, ' Then shalt thou delight 
thyself in the Lord: ' — As this, from Day to Day, has 
been revived in my Memory, I have considered that his 
internal Presence on our Minds is a Delight, of all others, 
the most pure; and that the Honest-hearted not only 
delight in this, but in the Effect of it upon them. He 
regards the Helpless and Distressed, and reveals his Love 
to his Children under Affliction; they delight in behold- 
ing his Benevolence, and feeling divine Charity moving 
upon them: Of this I may speak a little; for though, 
since I left you, I have often found an engaging Love and 
Affection toward thee and my Daughter, and Friends 
about Home, that going out at this Time, when Sickness 
is so great amongst you, is a Trial upon me; yet I often 
remember there are many Widows and Fatherless, many 
who have poor Tutors, many who have evil Examples 
before them, and many whose Minds are in Captivity, for 
whose Sake my Heart is, at Times, moved with Com- 
passion; so that I feel my Mind resigned to leave you 
for a Season, to exercise that Gift which the Lord hath 
bestowed on me; which though small, compared with 
some, yet in this I rejoice, that I feel Love unfeigned 
toward my Fellow-creatures. I recommend you to the 
Almighty, who, I trust, cares for you; and, under a Sense 
of his heavenly Love, remain, — Thy loving Husband, 

'' J. W." 

John Woolman's Journal 87 

We crossed from the East End of Long-Island to New- 
London, about thirty Miles, in a large open Boat; while 
we were out, the Wind rising high, the Waves several 
Times beat over us, so that to me it appeared dangerous ; 
but my Mind was, at that Time, turned to him, who made 
and governs the Deep, and my Life was resigned to him: 
And, as he was mercifully pleased to preserve us, I had 
fresh Occasion to consider every Day as a Day lent to 
me ; and felt a renewed Engagement to devote my Time, 
and all I had, to him who gave them. 

We had five Meetings in Narraganset ; and went thence 
to Newport on Rhode-Island. Our gracious Father pre- 
served us in an humble Dependence on him through deep 
Exercises, that were mortifying to the creaturely Will. 
In several Families in the Country, where we lodged, I 
felt an Engagement on my Mind to have a Conference 
with them in private concerning their Slaves; and, 
through divine Aid, I was favoured to give up thereto: 
Though, in this Concern, I appeared singular from many, 
whose Service in Travelling, I believe, is greater than 
mine; I do not think hard of them for omitting it; I 
do not repine at having so unpleasant a Task assigned 
me, but look with Awfulness to him, who appoints to his 
Servants their respective Employments, and is good to 
all who serve him sincerely. 

We got to Newport in the Evening, and on the next Day 
visited two sick Persons, and had comfortable Sittings 
with them; and in the Afternoon attended the Burial of 
a Friend. 

The next Day we were at Meetings at Newport, in 
the Forenoon and Afternoon; where the Spring of the 
Ministry was opened, and Strength given to declare the 
Word of Life to the People. 

The next Day we went on our Journey; but the great 
Number of Slaves in these Parts, and the Continuance of 
that Trade from thence to Guinea, made deep Impression 
on me; and my Cries were often put up to my heavenly 
Father in secret, that he would enable me to discharge my 
Duty faithfully, in such Way as he might be pleased to 
point out to me. 

88 John Woolman's Journal 

We took Swansea, Freetown, and Tanton, in our Way 
to Boston; where also we had a Meeting; our Exercise 
was deep, and the Love of Truth prevailed, for which I 
bless the Lord. We went Eastward about eighty Miles 
beyond Boston, taking Meetings, and were in a good 
Degree preserved in an humble Dependance on that Arm 
which drew us out; and, though we had some hard 
Labour with the Disobedient, laying Things home and 
close to such as were stout against the Truth; yet, 
through the Goodness of God, we had, at Times, to 
partake of heavenly Comfort with them who were meek, 
and were often favoured to part with Friends in the 
Nearness of true Gospel-fellowship. We returned to 
Boston, and had another comfortable Opportunity with 
Friends there; and thence rode back a Day's Journey 
Eastward of Boston : Our Guide being a heavy Man, 
and the Weather hot, and my Companion and I consider- 
ing it, expressed our Freedom to go on without him, to 
which he consented, and we respectfully took our Leave of 
him; this we did, as believing the Journey would have 
been hard to him and his Horse. 

We visited the Meetings in those Parts, and were 
measurably baptized into a feeling of the State of the 
Society : And in Bowedness of Spirit went to the Yearly- 
meeting at Newport; where I understood that a large 
Number of Slaves were imported from Africa into that 
Town, and then on Sale by a Member of our Society. At 
this Meeting we met with John Storer from England, 
Elizabeth Shipley, Ann Gaunt, Hannah Foster, and 
Mercy Redman, from our Parts, all Ministers of the 
Gospel, of whose Company I was glad. 

At this Time my Appetite failed, and I grew outwardly 
weak, and had a Feeling of the Condition of Habakknk 
as there expressed: " When I heard, my Belly trembled, 
my Lips quivered, I trembled in myself that I might rest 
in the Day of Trouble;" I had many Cogitations, and 
was sorely distressed: And was desirous that Friends 
might petition the Legislature, to use their Endeavours 
to discourage the future Importation of Slaves; for I 
saw that this Trade was a great Evil, and tended to 

John Woolman's Journal 89 

multiply Troubles, and bring Distresses on the People in 
those parts, for whose Welfare my Heart was deeply 

But I perceived several Difficulties in Regard to petition- 
ing; and such was the Exercise of my Mind, that I had 
Thought of endeavouring to get an Opportunity to speak 
a few Words in the House of Assembly, then sitting in 
Town. This Exercise came upon me in the Afternoon, 
on the second Day of the Yearly-meeting, and, going to 
Bed, I got no Sleep till my Mind was wholly resigned 
therein; and in the Morning I enquired of a Friend how 
long the Assembly were likely to continue sitting; who 
told me, they were expected to be prorogued that Day 
or the next. 

As I was desirous to attend the Business of the Meeting, 
and perceived the Assembly were likely to depart before 
the Business was over; after considerable Exercise, 
humbly seeking to the Lord for Instruction, my Mind 
settled to attend on the Business of the Meeting; on the 
last Day of which, I had prepared a short Essay of a 
Petition to be presented to the Legislature, if Way opened : 
And being informed that there were some appointed, by 
that Yearly-meeting, to speak with those in Authority, 
in Cases relating to the Society, I opened my Mind to 
several of them, and shewed them the Essay I had made; 
and afterward opened the Case in the Meeting for Business, 
in Substance as follows: 

" I have been under a Concern for some Time, on 
Account of the great Number of Slaves which are im- 
ported in this Colony; I am aware that it is a tender 
Point to speak to, but apprehend I am not clear in the 
Sight of Heaven without speaking to it. I have prepared 
an Essay of a Petition, if Way open, to be presented to 
the Legislature; and what I have to propose to this 
Meeting is, that some Friends may be named to withdraw 
and look over it, and report whether they believe it 
suitable to be read in the Meeting; if they should think 
well of reading it, it will remain for the Meeting, after 
hearing it, to consider, whether to take any farther 
Notice of it at a Meeting or not." After a short Con- 

go John Woolman's Journal 

ference some Friends went out, and, looking over it, 
expressed their Willingness to have it read; which being 
done, many expressed their Unity with the Proposal; 
and some signified, that to have the Subjects of the 
Petition enlarged upon, and to be signed out of Meeting 
by such' as were free, would be more suitable than to do 
it there: Though I expected, at first, that if it was done 
it would be in that Way; yet, such was the Exercise of 
my Mind, that to move it in the hearing of Friends, when 
assembled, appeared to me as a Duty; for my Heart 
yearned toward the Inhabitants of these Parts ; believing 
that by this Trade there had been an Increase of In- 
quietude amongst them, and a Way made easy for the 
spreading of a Spirit opposite to that Meekness and 
Humility, which is a sure Resting-place for the Soul: 
And that the Continuance of this Trade would not only 
render their Healing more difficult, but increase their 

Having thus far proceeded, I felt easy to leave the 
Essay among Friends, for them to proceed in it as they 
believed best. And now an Exercise revived on my 
Mind in Relation to Lotteries, which were common in 
those Parts: I had once moved it in a former Sitting of 
this Meeting, when Arguments were used in Favour of 
Friends being held excused who were only concerned in 
such Lotteries as were agreeable to Law: And now, on 
moving it again, it was opposed as before ; but the Hearts 
of some solid Friends appeared to be united to discourage 
the Practice amongst their Members; and the Matter 
was zealously handled by some on both Sides. In this 
Debate it appeared very clear to me, that the Spirit of 
Lotteries was a Spirit of Selfishness, which tended to 
Confusion and Darkness of Understanding; and that 
pleading for it in our Meetings, set apart for the Lord's 
Work, was not right: And, in the Heat of Zeal, I once 
made Reply to what an ancient Friend said, though 
when I sat down, I saw that my Words were not enough 
seasoned with Charity; and, after this, I spake no more 
on the Subject. At length a Minute was made; a Copy 
of which was agreed to be sent to their several Quarterly- 

John Woolman's Journal 9 1 

meetings, inciting Friends to labour to discourage the 
Practice amongst all professing with us. 

Some Time after this Minute was made, I, remaining 
uneasy with the Manner of my speaking to the ancient 
Friend, could not see my Way clear to conceal my Un- 
easiness, but was concerned that I might say nothing to 
weaken the Cause in which I had laboured; and then, 
after some close Exercise and hearty Repentance, for that 
I had not attended closely to the safe Guide, I stood 
up, and reciting the Passage, acquainted Friends, that, 
though I durst not go from what I had said as to the 
Matter, yet I was uneasy with the Manner of my speaking, 
as believing milder Language would have been better. 
As this was uttered in some Degree of creaturely Abase- 
ment, it appeared to have a good Savour amongst us, 
after a warm Debate. 

The Yearly-meeting being now over, there yet remained 
on my Mind a secret, though heavy. Exercise in regard to 
some leading active Members about Newport, being in 
the Practice of Slave-keeping. This I mentioned to two 
ancient Friends, who came out of the Country, and 
proposed to them, if Way opened, to have some Con- 
versation with those Friends: And, thereupon, one of 
those Country Friends and I consulted one of the most 
noted Elders who had Slaves; and he, in a respectful 
Manner, encouraged me to proceed to clear myself of 
what lay upon me. Now I had, near the Beginning of 
the Yearly-meeting, a private Conference with this said 
Elder and his Wife concerning theirs; so that the Way 
seemed clear to me to advise with him about the Manner 
of proceeding : I told him, I was free to have a Conference 
with them all together in a private House; or, if he 
thought they would take it unkind to be asked to come 
together, and to be spoke with one in the hearing of 
another, I was free to spend some Time among them, and 
visit them all in their own Houses: He expressed his 
Liking to the first Proposal, not doubting their Willing- 
ness to come together: And, as I proposed a Visit to 
only Ministers, Elders, and Overseers, he named some 
others, who he desired might be present also: And, as 
H 402 

92 John Woolman's Journal 

a careful Messenger was wanted to acquaint them in a 
proper Manner, he offered to go to all their Houses to 
open the Matter to them ; and did so. About the eighth 
Hour, the next Morning, we met in the Meeting-house 
Chamber, and the last-mentioned Country Friend, also 
my Companion, and John Storer, with us; when, after 
a short Time of Retirement, I acquainted them with the 
Steps I had taken in procuring that Meeting, and opened 
the Concern I was under; and so we proceeded to a free 
Conference upon the Subject. My Exercise was heavy, 
and I was deeply bowed in Spirit before the Lord, who 
was pleased to favour us with the seasoning Virtue of 
Truth, which wrought a Tenderness amongst us ; and the 
Subject was mutually handled in a calm and peaceable 
Spirit: And, at length, feeling my Mind released from 
that Burthen which I had been under, I took my Leave 
of them, in a good Degree of Satisfaction; and, by the 
Tenderness they manifested in Regard to the Practice, 
and the Concern several of them expressed in Relation 
to the Manner of disposing of their Negroes after their 
Decease, I believed that a good Exercise was spreading 
amongst them; and I am humbly thankful to God, who 
supported my Mind, and preserved me in a good Degree 
of Resignation through these Trials. 

Thou, who sometimes travellest in the Work of the 
Ministry, art made very welcome by thy Friends, and 
seest many Tokens of their Satisfaction, in having thee 
for their Guest, it is good for thee to dwell deep, that 
thou mayst feel and understand the Spirits of People: 
If we believe Truth points towards a Conference on some 
Subjects, in a private Way, it is needful for us to take 
heed that their Kindness, their Freedom, and Affability, 
do not hinder us from the Lord's Work. I have seen 
that, in the midst of Kindness and smooth Conduct, to 
speak close and home to them who entertain us, on 
Points that relate to their outward Interest, is hard 
Labour; and sometimes, when I have felt Truth lead 
toward it, I have found myself disqualified by a super- 
ficial Friendship; and as the Sense thereof hath abased 
me, and my Cries have been to the Lord, so I have been 

John Woolman's Journal 93 

humbled and made content to appear weak, or as a Fool 
for his Sake; and thus a Door hath opened to enter upon 
it. To attempt to do the Lord's Work in our own Way, 
and to speak of that which is the Burthen of the Word 
in a Way easy to the natural Part, doth not reach the 
Bottom of the Disorder. To see the Failings of our 
Friends and think hard of them, without opening that 
which we ought to open, and still carry a Face of Friend- 
ship; this tends to undermine the Foundation of true 

The Office of a Minister of Christ is weighty; and they, 
who go forth as Watchmen, had need to be steadily on 
their Guard against the Snares of Prosperity and an out- 
side Friendship. 

After the Yearly-meeting, we were at Meetings at New- 
Town, Cushnet, Long-Plain, Rochester, and Dartmouth : 
From thence we sailed for Nantucket, in Company with 
Ann Gaunt and Mercy Redman, and several other 
Friends: The Wind being slack, we only reached Tar- 
pawling-Cove the first Day; where, going on Shore, we 
found Room in a Publick-house, and Beds for a few of 
us, the rest sleeping on the Floor: We went on board 
again about Break of Day; and, though the Wind was 
small, we were favoured to come within about four Miles 
of Nantucket; and then, about ten of us getting into 
our Boat, we rowed to the Harbour before dark; where- 
upon a large Boat, going off, brought in the rest of the 
Passengers about Midnight: The next Day but one was 
their Yearly-meeting, which held four Days; the last of 
which was their Monthly-meeting for Business. We had 
a laborious Time amongst them : Our Minds were closely 
exercised, and I believe it was a Time of great Searching 
of Heart: The longer I was on the Island, the more I 
became sensible that there was a considerable Number 
of valuable Friends there, though an evil Spirit, tending 
to Strife, had been at Work amongst them : I was cautious 
of making any Visits, but as my Mind was particularly 
drawn to them; and in that Way we had some Sittings 
in Friends Houses, where the heavenly Wing was, at 
Times, spread over us, to our mutual Comfort. 

94 John Woolman's Journal 

My beloved Companion had very acceptable Service 
on this Island. 

When Meeting was over, we all agreed to sail the next 
Day, if the Weather was suitable and we well ; and, being 
called up the latter Part of the Night, we went on board 
a Vessel, being in all about fifty; but, the Wind changing, 
the Seamen thought best to stay in the Harbour till it 
altered; so we returned on Shore; and, feeling clear as 
to any farther Visits, I spent my Time in our Chamber 
chiefly alone; and, after some Hours, my Heart being 
filled with the Spirit of Supplication, my Prayers and 
Tears were poured out, before my heavenly Father, for 
his Help and Instruction in the manifold Difficulties 
which attended me in Life: And, while I was waiting 
upon the Lord, there came a Messenger from the Women 
Friends, who lodged at another House, desiring to confer 
with us about appointing a Meeting, which to me appeared 
weighty, as we had been at so many before; but, after 
a short Conference, and advising with some elderly 
Friends, a Meeting was appointed, in which the Friend, 
who first moved it, and who had been much shut up 
before, was largely opened in the Love of the Gospel: 
And the next Morning, about Break of Day, going again 
on board the Vessel, we reached Falmouth on the Main 
before Night; where our Horses being brought, we pro- 
ceeded toward Sandwich Quarterly-meeting. 

Being two Days in going to Nantucket, and having been 
there once before, I observed many Shoals in their Bay, 
which make Sailing more dangerous, especially in stormy 
Nights; also, that a great Shoal, which encloses their 
Harbour, prevents their going in with Sloops, except 
when the Tide is up; waiting without which, for the 
Rising of the Tide, is sometimes hazardous in Storms; 
waiting within, they sometimes miss a fair Wind. I took 
Notice, that on that small Island was a great Number 
of Inhabitants, and the Soil not very fertile; the Timber 
so gone, that for Vessels, Fences, and Firewood, they 
depend chiefly on the buying from the Main; the Cost 
whereof, with most of their other Expences, they depend 
principally upon the Whale-fishery to answer. I con- 

John Woolman's Journal 95 

sidered, that as Towns grew larger, and Lands near 
navigable Waters more cleared, Timber and Wood require 
more Labour to get it: I understood that the Whales 
being much hunted, and sometimes wounded and not 
killed, grew more shy and difficult to come at: I con- 
sidered that the Formation of the Earth, the Seas, the 
Islands, Bays, and Rivers, the Motions of the Winds and 
great Waters, which cause Bars and Shoals in particular 
Places, were all the Works of him who is perfect Wisdom 
and Goodness; and, as People attend to his heavenly 
Instruction, and put their Trust in him, he provides for 
them in all Parts where he gives them a Being. And as, 
in this Visit to these People, I felt a strong Desire for their 
firm Establishment on the sure Foundation, besides what 
was said more publickly, I was concerned to speak with 
the Women Friends, in their Monthly-meeting of Business, 
many being present; and, in the fresh Spring of pure 
Love, to open before them the Advantage, both inward 
and outward, of attending singly to the Guidance of the 
Holy Spirit, and therein to educate their Children in true 
Humility, and the Disuse of all Superfluities, reminding 
them of the Difficulties their Husbands and Sons were 
frequently exposed to at Sea; and that, the more plain 
and simple their Way of Living was, the less Need of 
running great Hazards to support them in it; encourag- 
ing the young Women in their neat decent Way of attend- 
ing themselves on the Affairs of the House; shewing, as 
the Way opened, that, where People were truly humble, 
used themselves to Business, and were content with a 
plain Way of Life, it had ever been attended with more 
true Peace and Calmness of Mind, than they have had 
who, aspiring to Greatness and outward Shew, have 
grasped hard for an Income to support themselves in it: 
And, as I observed they had few or no Slaves amongst 
them, I had to encourage them to be content without 
them; making mention of the numerous Troubles and 
Vexations which frequently attend the Minds of People 
who depend on Slaves to do their Labour. 

We attended the Quarterly-meeting at Sandwich, in 
Company with Ann Gaunt and Mercy Redman, which 

96 John Woolman's Journal 

was preceded by a Monthly-meeting; and in the whole 
held three Days: We were various Ways exercised 
amongst them, in Gospel-love, according to the several 
Gifts bestowed on us ; and were, at Times, overshadowed 
with the Virtue of Truth, to the Comfort of the Sincere, 
and stirring up of the Negligent. Here we parted with 
Ann and Mercy, and went to Rhode-Island, taking one 
Meeting in our Way, which was a satisfactory Time; 
and, reaching Newport the Evening before their Quarterly- 
meeting, we attended it; and, after that, had a Meeting 
with our young People, separated from those of other 
Societies. We went through much Labour in this Town; 
and now, in taking Leave of it, though I felt close inward 
Exercise to the last, I found inward Peace; and was, in 
some Degree, comforted, in a Belief, that a good Number 
remain in that Place, who retain a Sense of Truth; and 
that there are some young People attentive to the Voice 
of the heavenly Shepherd. The last Meeting, in which 
Friends from the several Parts of the Quarter came 
together, was a select Meeting; and, through the renewed 
Manifestation of the Father's Love, the Hearts of the 
Sincere were united together. 

That Poverty of Spirit, and inward Weakness, with 
which I was much tried the fore Part of this Journey, 
have of late appeared to me as a Dispensation of Kind- 
ness. Appointing Meetings never appeared more weighty 
to me; and I was led into a deep Search, whether in all 
Things my Mind was resigned to the Will of God; often 
querying with myself, what should be the Cause of such 
inward Poverty; and greatly desired, that no secret 
Reserve in my Heart might hinder my Access to the 
divine Fountain. In these humbling Times I was made 
watchful, and excited to attend the secret Movings of 
the heavenly Principle in my Mind, which prepared the 
Way to some Duties, that in more easy and prosperous 
Times, as to the Outward, I believe I should have been 
in danger of omitting. 

From Newport we went to Greenwich, Shanticut, and 
Warwick ; and were helped to labour amongst Friends 
in the Love of our gracious Redeemer: And then, accom- 

John Woolman's Journal 97 

panied by our Friend, John Casey, from Newport, we 
rode through Connecticut to Oblong, visited the Meetings 
of Friends in those Parts, and thence proceeded to the 
Quarterly-meeting at Ryewoods ; and, through the gracious 
Extendings of divine Help, had some seasoning Oppor- 
tunities in those Places: So we visited Friends at New 
York and Flushing ; and thence to Rahaway : And here, 
our Roads parting, I took Leave of my beloved Com- 
panion, and true Yoke-mate, Samuel Eastburn; and 
reached Home on the tenth Day of the eighth Month, 
1760, where I found my Family well : And, for the Favours 
and Protection of the Lord, both inward and outward, 
extended to me in this Journey, my Heart is humbled in 
grateful Acknowledgments; and I find renewed Desires 
to dwell and walk in Resignedness before him. 


His Visits to Pennsylvania, Shrewsbury, and Squan — His 
publishing the second Part of Considerations on keeping 
Negroes — His visiting the Families of Friends of Ancocas 
and Mount-Holly Meetings — His Visits to the Indians at 
Wehaloosing on the River Susquehannah 

Having felt my Mind drawn toward a Visit to a few 
Meetings in Pennsylvania, I was very desirous to be rightly 
instructed as to the Time of setting off: And^ on the tenth 
Day of the fifth Month, 1761, being the first Day of the 
Week, I went to Haddonfield Meeting, concluding to seek 
for heavenly Instruction, and come Home, or go on, as 
I might then believe best for me; and there, through 
the springing up of pure Love, I felt Encouragement, 
and so crossed the River. In this Visit I was at two 
Quarterly and three Monthly-meetings ; and, in the Love 
of Truth, felt my Way open to labour with some noted 
Friends, who kept Negroes: And, as I was favoured to 
keep to the Root, and endeavoured to discharge what 
I believed was required of me, I found inward Peace 
therein, from Time to Time, and Thankfulness of Heart 
to the Lord, who was graciously pleased to be a Guide 
to me. 

In the eighth Month, 1761, having felt Drawings in 
my Mind to visit Friends in and about Shrewsbury, I 
went there, and was at their Monthly-meeting, and their 
First-day-meeting; and had a Meeting at Squan, and 
another at Squankum ; and, as Way opened, had Con- 
versation with some noted Friends concerning their Slaves : 
And I returned Home in a thankful Sense of the Goodness 
of the Lord. 

From the Care I felt growing in me some Years, I wrote 
Considerations on keeping Negroes, Part the Second; 
which was printed this Year, 1762. When the Overseers 


John Woolman's Journal 99 

of the Press had done with it, they offered to get a Number 
printed, to be paid for out of the Yearly-meeting Stock, 
and to be given away; but I being most easy to publish 
them at my own Expence, and, offering my Reasons,, 
they appeared satisfied. 

This Stock is the Contribution of the Members of our 
religious Society in general; amongst whom are some who. 
keep Negroes; and, being inclined to continue them in 
Slavery, are not likely to be satisfied with those Books 
being spread amongst a People where many of the Slaves 
are taught to read, and especially not at their Expence; 
and such often, receiving them as a Gift, conceal them: 
But as they, who make a Purchase, generally buy that 
which they have a Mind for, I believe it best to sell them ; 
expecting, by that Means, they would more generally be 
read with Attention. Advertisements being signed by 
Order of the Overseers of the Press, directed to be read 
in Monthly-meetings of Business within our own Yearly- 
meeting, informing where the Books were, and that the 
Price was no more than the Cost of printing and binding 
them, many were taken off in our Parts ; some I sent to . 
Virginia, some to New-York, and some to Newport, to 
my Acquaintance there; and some I kept, expecting to 
give Part of them away, where there appeared a Prospect 
of Service. 

In my Youth I was used to hard Labour; and, though 
I was middling healthy, yet my Nature was not fitted 
to endure so much as many others: So that, being often 
weary, I was prepared to sympathize with those whose 
Circumstances in Life, as free Men, required constant 
Labour to answer the Demands of their Creditors, and 
with others under Oppression. In the Uneasiness of 
Body, which I have many Times felt by too much Labour, 
not as a forced but as a voluntary Oppression, I have 
often been excited to think on the original Cause of that 
Oppression, which is imposed on many in the World: 
And, the latter Part of the Time wherein I laboured on 
our Plantation, my Heart, through the fresh Visitations 
of heavenly Love, being often tender, and my leisure 
Time frequently spent in reading the Life and Doctrines 

I oo John Woolman*s Journal 

of our blessed Redeemer, the Account of the Sufferings 
of Martyrs, and the History of the first Rise of our Society, 
a BeHef was gradually settled in my Mind, that if 
such, as had great Estates, generally lived in that 
Humility and Plainness which belongs to a Christian Life, 
and laid much easier Rents and Interests on their Lands 
and Monies, and thus led the Way to a right Use of 
Things, so great a Number of People might be employed 
in Things useful, that Labour, both for Men and other 
Creatures, would need to be no more than an agreeable 
Employ; and divers Branches of Business, which serve 
chiefly to please the natural Inclinations of our Minds, 
and which, at present, seem necessary to circulate that 
Wealth which some gather, might, in this Way of pure 
Wisdom, be discontinued. And, as I have thus con- 
sidered these Things, a Query, at Times, hath arisen: 
Do I, in all my Proceedings, keep to that Use of Things 
which is agreeable to universal Righteousness? And 
then there hath some Degree of Sadness, at Times, come 
over me, for that I accustomed myself to some Things, 
which occasioned more Labour than I believe divine 
Wisdom intends for us. 

From my early Acquaintance with Truth I have often 
felt an inward Distress, occasioned by the striving of 
a Spirit in me against the Operation of the heavenly 
Principle; and in this Circumstance have been affected 
with a Sense of my own Wretchedness, and in a mourning 
Condition felt earnest Longing for that divine Help, which 
brings the Soul into true Liberty ; and sometimes, in this 
State, retiring into private Places, the Spirit of Supplica- 
tion hath been given me; and, under a heavenly Cover- 
ing, I have asked my gracious Father to give me a Heart 
in all Things resigned to the Direction of his Wisdom. 

In visiting People of Note in the Society who had 
Slaves, and labouring with them in brotherly Love on 
that Account, I have seen, and the Sight hath affected 
me, that a Conformity to some Customs, distinguishable 
from pure Wisdom, has entangled many; and the Desire 
of Gain, to support these Customs, greatly opposed the 
Work of Truth: And sometimes, when the Prospect of 

John Woolman's Journal loi 

the Work before me has been such, that in Bowedness 
of Spirit, I have been drawn into retired Places, and be- 
sought the Lord with Tears that he would take me 
wholly under his Direction, and shew me the Way in 
which I ought to walk, it hath revived, with Strength 
of Conviction, that, if I would be his faithful Servant, I 
must, in all Things, attend to his Wisdom, and be teach- 
able; and so cease from all Customs contrary thereto, 
however used amongst religious People. 

As he is the Perfection of Power, of Wisdom, and of 
Goodness, so, I believe, he hath provided, that so much 
Labour shall be necessary for Men's Support, in this 
World, as would, being rightly divided, be a suitable 
Employment of their Time; and that we cannot go into 
Superfluities, or grasp after Wealth in a Way contrary 
to his Wisdom, without having Connection with some 
Degree of Oppression, and with that Spirit which leads 
to Self-exaltation and Strife, and which frequently brings 
Calamities on Countries, by Parties contending about 
their Claims. 

In the eleventh Month of the Year 1762, feeling an 
Engagement of Mind to visit some Families in Mansfield, 
I joined my beloved Friend, Benjamin Jones, and we 
spent a few Days together in that Service. In the second 
Month, 1763, 1 joined in Company with Elizabeth Smith 
and Mary Noble on a Visit to the Families of Friends 
at Ancocas ; in both which Visits, through the baptizing 
Power of Truth, the sincere Labourers were often com- 
forted, and the Hearts of Friends opened to receive us. 
And, in the fourth Month following, I accompanied some 
Friends in a Visit to the Families of Friends in Mount- 
Holly, in which my Mind was often drawn into an inward 
Awfulness, wherein strong Desires were raised for the 
everlasting Welfare of my Fellow-creatures; and, through 
the Kindness of our heavenly Father, our Hearts were, 
at Times, enlarged, and Friends invited, in the Flowings 
of divine Love, to attend to that which would settle them 
on the sure Foundation. 

Having many Years felt Love in my Heart towards the 
Natives of this Land, who dwell far back in the Wilder- 

I02 John Woolman's Journal 

ness, whose Ancestors were the Owners and Possessors 
of the Land where we dwell; and who, for a very small 
Consideration, assigned their Inheritance to us; and, 
being at Philadelphia, in the eighth Month, 1761, in a 
Visit to some Friends who had Slaves, I fell in Company 
with some of those Natives who lived on the East Branch 
of the River Susquehannah, at an Indian Town called 
Wehaloosing, two hundred Miles from Philadelphia, and, 
in Conversation with them by an Interpreter, as also 
by Observations on their Countenances and Conduct, I 
believed some of them were measurably acquainted with 
that divine Power which subjects the rough and forward 
Will of the Creature : And, at Times, I felt inward Draw- 
ings toward a Visit to that Place, of which I told none 
except my dear Wife, until it came to some Ripeness; 
and, then, in the Winter, 1762, I laid it before Friends 
at our Monthly and Quarterly, and afterwards at our 
general Spring-meeting; and, having the Unity of Friends, 
and being thoughtful about an Indian Pilot, there came 
a Man and three Women from a little beyond that Town 
to Philadelphia on Business: And I, being informed 
thereof by Letter, met them in Town in the fifth Month, 
1763; and, after some Conversation, finding they were 
sober People, I, by the Concurrence of Friends in that 
Place, agreed to join with them as Companions in their 
Return; and, on the seventh Day of the sixth Month 
following, we appointed to meet at Samuel Foulk's, 
at Richland in Bucks County. Now, as this Visit felt 
weighty, and was performed at a Time when Travelling 
appeared perilous, so the Dispensations of divine Pro- 
vidence, in preparing my Mind for it, have been memor- 
able; and I believe it good for me to give some Hints 

After I had given up to go, the Thoughts of the 
Journey were often attended with unusual Sadness; in 
which Times my Heart was frequently turned to the 
Lord with inward Breathings for his heavenly Support, 
that I might not fail to follow him wheresoever he might 
lead me: And, being at our Youths Meeting at Chester- 
field, about a Week before the Time I expected to set ofif. 

John Woolman's Journal 103 

I was there led to speak on that Prayer of our Redeemer 
to his Father: " I pray not that thou shouldest take 
them out of the World, but that thou shouldest keep 
them from the Evil." And, in attending to the pure 
Openings of Truth, I had to mention what he elsewhere 
said to his Father; " I know that thou hearest me at all 
Times: " So that, as some of his Followers kept their 
Places, and as his Prayer was granted, it followed neces- 
sarily that they were kept from Evil: And, as some of 
those met with great Hardships and Afflictions in this 
World, and at last suffered Death by cruel Men, it appears, 
that whatsoever befals Men while they live in pure 
Obedience to God, as it certainly works for their Good, 
so it may not be considered an Evil as it relates to them. 
As I spake on this Subject, my Heart was much tendered, 
and great Awfulness came over me; and then, on the 
first Day of the next Week, being at our own Afternoon- 
meeting, and my Heart being enlarged in Love, I was 
led to speak on the Care and Protection of the Lord over 
his People, and to make mention of that Passage, where 
a Band of Assyrians endeavouring to take captive the 
Prophet, were disappointed; and how the Psalmist said, 
" The Angel of the Lord encampeth round about them 
that fear him." And thus, in true Love and Tenderness, 
I parted from Friends, expecting the next Morning, to 
proceed on my Journey, and, being weary, went early 
to Bed; and, after I had been asleep a short Time, I was 
awaked by a Man calling at my Door; and, arising, was 
invited to meet some Friends at a Publick-house in our 
Town, who came from Philadelphia so late, that Friends 
were generally gone to Bed: These Friends informed me, 
that an Express arrived the last Morning from Pittsburgh, 
and brought News that the Indians had taken a Fort 
from the English Westward, and slain and scalped English 
People in divers Places, some near the said Pittsburgh; 
and that some elderly Friends in Philadelphia, know- 
ing the Time of my expecting to set off, had conferred 
together, and thought good to inform me of these Things, 
before I left Home, that I might consider them, and pro- 
ceed as I believed best; so I, going again to Bed, told 

1 04 John Woolman*s Journal 

not my Wife till Morning. My Heart was turned to the 
Lord for his heavenly Instruction ; and it was an humbling 
Time to me. When I told my dear Wife, she appeared 
to be deeply concerned about it; but, in a few Hours 
Time, my Mind became settled in a Belief, that it was my 
Duty to proceed on my Journey; and she bore it with a 
good Degree of Resignation. In this Conflict of Spirit, 
there were great Searchings of Heart, and strong Cries 
to the Lord, that no Motion might be, in the least Degree, 
attended to, but that of the pure Spirit of Truth. 

The Subjects before-mentioned, on which I had so 
lately spoken in publick, were now very fresh before me; 
and I was brought inwardly to commit myself to the Lord, 
to be disposed of as he saw best. So I took Leave of my 
Family and Neighbours, in much Bowedness of Spirit, 
and went to our Monthly-meeting at Burlington; and, 
after taking Leave of Friends there, I crossed the River, 
accompanied by my Friends, Israel and John Pem- 
berton; and, parting the next Morning with Israel, 
John bore me Company to Samuel Foulk's, where I met 
the before-mentioned Indians, and we were glad to see 
each other : Here my Friend, Benjamin Parvin, met me, 
and proposed joining as a Companion, we having passed 
some Letters before on the Subject; and now, on his 
Account, I had a sharp Trial ; for, as the Journey appeared 
perilous, I thought, if he went chiefly to bear me Com- 
pany, and we should be taken Captive, my having been 
the Means of drawing him into these Difficulties would 
add to my own Afflictions : So I told him my Mind freely, 
and let him know that I was resigned to go alone; but, 
after all, if he really believed it to be his Duty to go on, 
I believed his Company would be very comfortable to 
me : It was indeed a Time of deep Exercise, and Ben- 
jamin appeared to be so fastened to the Visit, that he 
could not be easy to leave me; so we went on, accom- 
panied by our Friends, John Pemberton, and William 
LiGHTFOOT of Pikeland, and lodged at Bethlehem ; and 
there, parting with John, William and we went forward 
on the ninth Day of the sixth Month, and got Lodging 
on the Floor of a House, about five Miles from Fort-Allen : 

John Woolman's Journal 105 

Here we parted with William; and at this Place we met 
with an Indian Trader, lately come from Wioming ; and, 
in Conversation with him, I perceived that many white 
People do often sell Rum to the Indians, which, I believe, 
is a great Evil; first, they being thereby deprived of 
the Use of their Reason, and their Spirits violently agi- 
tated, Quarrels often arise, which end in Mischief; and 
the Bitterness and Resentments, occasioned hereby, are 
frequently of long Continuance; Again, their Skins and 
Furs, gotten through much Fatigue and hard Travels in 
Hunting, with which they intended to buy Clothing, 
when they become intoxicated, they often sell at a low 
Rate for more Rum; and afterward, when they suffer 
for want of the Necessaries of Life, are angry with those 
who, for the Sake of Gain, took the Advantage of their 
Weakness: Of this their Chiefs have often complained, 
at their Treaties with the English. Where cunning People 
pass Counterfeits, and impose that on others which is 
good for nothing, it is considered as a Wickedness; but, 
to sell that to People which we know does them Harm, 
and which often works their Ruin, for the Sake of Gain, 
manifests a hardened and corrupt Heart, and is an Evil, 
which demands the Care of all true Lovers of Virtue to 
suppress: And while my Mind, this Evening, was thus 
employed, I also remembered, that the People on the 
Frontiers, among whom this Evil is too common, are 
often poor; who venture to the Outside of a Colony, that 
they may live more independent on such as are wealthy, 
who often set high Rents on their Land : Being renewedly 
confirmed in a Belief, that, if all our Inhabitants lived 
according to sound Wisdom, labouring to promote uni- 
versal Love and Righteousness, and ceased from every 
inordinate Desire after Wealth, and from all Customs 
which are tinctured with Luxury, the Way would be easy 
for our Inhabitants, though much more numerous than 
at present, to live comfortably on honest Employments, 
without having that Temptation they are often under of 
being drawn into Schemes to make Settlements on Lands 
which have not been purchased of the Indians, or of apply- 
ing to that wicked Practice of selling Rum to them. 

1 06 John Woolman's Journal 

On the tenth Day of the Month we set out early in 
the Morning, and crossed the Western Branch of Delaware, 
called the Great Lehie, near Fort- Allen ; the Water being 
high, we went over in a Canoe: Here we met an Indian, 
and had some friendly Conversation with him, and gave 
him some Biscuit; and he having killed a Deer, gave the 
Indians with us some of it : Then, after travelling some 
Miles, we met several Indian Men and Women with a 
Cow and Horse, and some Household Goods, who were 
lately come from their Dwelling at Wioming, and going 
to settle at another Place; we made them some small 
Presents, and, some of them understanding English, I 
told them my Motive in coming into their Country, with 
which they appeared satisfied: And, one of our Guides 
talking a While with an ancient Woman concerning us, 
the poor old Woman came to my Companion and me, 
and took her Leave of us with an Appearance of sincere 
Affection. So, going on, we pitched our Tent near the 
Banks of the same River, having laboured hard in 
crossing some of those Mountains called the Blue-Ridge; 
and, by the Roughness of the Stones, and the Cavities 
between them, and the Steepness of the Hills, it appeared 
dangerous; but we were preserved in Safety, through 
the Kindness of him, whose Works in those mountainous 
Desarts appeared awful: Toward whom my Heart was 
turned during this Day's Travel. 

Near our Tent, on the Sides of large Trees peeled for 
that Purpose, were various Representations of Men going 
to, and returning from the Wars, and of some killed in 
Battle; this being a Path heretofore used by Warriours: 
And, as I walked about viewing those Indian Histories, 
which were painted mostly in red, but some in black; 
and thinking on the innumerable Afflictions which the 
proud, fierce. Spirit produceth in the World; thinking 
on the Toils and Fatigues of Warriours, travelling over 
Mountains and Desarts; thinking on their Miseries and 
Distresses when wounded far from Home by their Enemies ; 
and of their Bruises and great Weariness in chasing one 
another over the Rocks and Mountains; and of their 
restless, unquiet, State of Mind, who live in this Spirit; 

John Woolman's Journal 1 07 

and of the Hatred which mutually grows up in the Minds 
of the Children of those Nations engaged in War with 
each other: During these Meditations, the Desire to 
cherish the Spirit of Love and Peace amongst these 
People arose very fresh in me. This was the first Night 
that we lodged in the Woods ; and, being wet with travel- 
ling in the Rain, the Ground, our Tent, and the Bushes, 
which we proposed to lay under our Blankets, being also 
wet, all looked discouraging; but I believed, that it was 
the Lord who had thus far brought me forward, and that 
he would dispose of me as he saw good; and therein I 
felt easy: So we kindled a Fire, with our Tent open to it; 
and, with some Bushes next the Ground, and then our 
Blankets, we made our Bed, and, lying down, got some 
Sleep; and, in the Morning, feeling a little unwell, I went 
into the River; the Water was cold, but soon after I 
felt fresh and well. 

The eleventh Day of the sixth Month, the Bushes being 
wet, we tarried in our Tent till about eight o' Clock; 
when, going on, we crossed a high Mountain supposed to 
be upwards of four Miles over; the Steepness on the 
North Side exceeding all the others. We also crossed 
two Swamps, and, it raining near Night, we pitched our 
Tent and lodged. 

About Noon, on our Way, we were overtaken by one 
of the Moravian Brethren, going to Wehaloosing, and an 
Indian Man with him, who could talk English; and we, 
being together while our Horses ate Grass, had some 
friendly Conversation; but they, travelling faster than 
we, soon left us. This Moravian, I understood, had spent 
lome Time this Spring at Wehaloosing, and was, by some 
of the Indians, invited to come again. 

The twelfth Day of the sixth Month, and first of the 
Week, it being a rainy Day, we continued in our Tent; 
and here I was led to think on the Nature of the Exercise 
which hath attended me: Love was the first Motion, and 
thence a Concern arose to spend some Time with the 
Indians, that I might feel and understand their Life, and 
the Spirit they live in, if haply I might receive some 
Instruction from them, or they be in any Degree helped 
I 402 

io8 John Woolman's Journal 

forward by my following the Leadings of Truth amongst 
them: And, as it pleased the Lord to make Way for my 
going at a Time when the Troubles of War were increasing, 
and when, by Reason of much wet Weather, Travelling 
was more difficult than usual at that Season, I looked 
upon it as a more favourable Opportunity to season my 
Mind, and bring me into a nearer Sympathy with them: 
And, as mine Eye was to the great Father of Mercies, 
humbly desiring to learn what his Will was concerning 
me, I was made quiet and content. 

Our Guide's Horse, though hoppled, went away in the 
Night; after finding our own, and searching some Time 
for him, his Footsteps were discovered in the Path going 
back again, whereupon my kind Companion went off in 
the Rain, and, about seven Hours after, returned with 
him: And here we lodged again; tying up our Horses 
before we went to Bed, and loosing them to feed about 
Break of Day. 

On the thirteenth Day of the sixth Month, the Sun 
appearing, we set forward ; and, as I rode over the barren 
Hills, my Meditations were on the Alterations of the 
Circumstances of the Natives of this Land since the 
Coming in of the English. The Lands near the Sea are 
conveniently situated for fishing; the Lands near the 
Rivers, where the Tides flow, and some above, are in 
many Places fertile, and not mountainous; while the 
Running of the Tides makes passing up and down easy 
with any Kind of Traffic. Those Natives have, in some 
Places, for trifling Considerations, sold their Inheritance 
so favourably situated; and, in other Places, been driven 
back by superior Force: So that in many Places, as their 
Way of clothing themselves is now altered from what it 
was, and they, far remote from us, have to pass over 
Mountains, Swamps, and barren Desarts, Travelling is 
very troublesome, in bringing their Skins and Furs to 
trade with us. 

By the extending of English Settlements, and partly 
by English Hunters, the wild Beasts, they chiefly depend 
on for a Subsistance, are not so plenty as they were; and 
People too often, for the Sake of Gain, open a Door for 

John Woolman's Journal 109 

them to waste their Skins and Furs, in purchasing a Liquor 
which tends to the Ruin of them and their FamiHes. 

My own Will and Desires were now very much broken, 
and my Heart, with much Earnestness, turned to the 
Lord, to whom alone I looked for Help in the Dangers 
before me. I had a Prospect of the English along the 
Coast, for upwards of nine hundred Miles, where I had 
travelled; and the favourable Situation of the English, 
and the Difficulties attending the Natives in many Places, 
and the Negroes, were open before me; and a weighty 
and heavenly Care came over my Mind, and Love filled 
my Heart toward all Mankind, in which I felt a strong 
Engagement, that we might be obedient to the Lord, 
while, in tender Mercies, he is yet calling to us; and so 
attend to pure universal Righteousness, as to give no 
just Cause of Offence to the Gentiles, who do not profess 
Christianity, whether the Blacks from Africa, or the 
native Inhabitants of this Continent: And here I was 
led into a close laborious Enquiry, whether I, as an 
Individual, kept clear from all Things which tended to 
stir up, or were connected with Wars, either in this Land 
or Africa; and my Heart was deeply concerned, that, in 
future, I might in all Things keep steadily to the pure 
Truth, and live and walk in the Plainness and Simplicity 
of a sincere Follower of Christ. And, in this lonely 
Journey, I did, this Day, greatly bewail the Spreading 
of a wrong Spirit, believing, that the prosperous, con- 
venient. Situation of the English, requires a constant 
Attention to divine Love and Wisdom to guide and support 
us in a Way answerable to the Will of that good, gracious, 
and almighty Being, who hath an equal Regard to all 
Mankind : Aiid, here. Luxury and Covetousness, with the 
numerous Oppressions, and other Evils attending them, 
appeared very afflicting to me; and I felt in that which 
is immutable, that the Seeds of great Calamity and 
Desolation are sown and growing fast on this Continent: 
Nor have I Words sufficient to set forth that Longing I 
then felt, that we, who are placed along the Coast, and 
have tasted the Love and Goodness of God, might arise 
in his Strength; and, like faithful Messengers, labour to 

I lo John Woolman's Journal 

check the Growth of these Seeds, that they may not 
ripen to the Ruin of our Posterity. 

We reached the Indian Settlement at Wioming; and 
here we were told, that an Indian Runner had been at that 
Place a Day or two before us, and brought News of the 
Indians taking an English Fort westward, and destroying 
the People, and that they were endeavouring to take 
another; and also, that another Indian Runner came 
there about the Middle of the Night before we got there, 
who came from a Town about ten Miles above Wehaloo- 
singj and brought News, that some Indian Warriours, 
from distant Parts, came to that Town with two English 
Scalps, and told the People, that it was War with the 

+ En^ish. 
Our Guides took us to the House of a very ancient Man; 
and, soon after we had put in our Baggage, there came a 
Man from another Indian House some Distance off; and 
I, perceiving there was a Man near the Door, went out; 
and, having a Tomahawk wrapped under his Matchcoat 
out of Sight, as I approached him, he took it in his Hand ; 
I, however, went forward, and, speaking to him in a 
friendly Way, perceived he understood some English : 
My Companion then coming out, we had some Talk with 
him concerning the Nature of our Visit in these Parts; 
and then he going into the House with us, and talking 
with our Guides, soon appeared friendly, and sat down 
and smoked his Pipe. Though his taking his Hatchet 
in his Hand, at the Instant I drew near to him, had 
a disagreeable Appearance, I believe he had no other 
Intent than to be in Readiness in case any Violence was 
offered to him. 

Hearing the News brought by these Indian Runners, 
and being told by the Indians where we lodged, that 
what Indians were about Wioming expected, in a few 
Days, to move to some larger Towns, I thought that, to 
all outward Appearance, it was dangerous Travelling at 
this Time ; and was, after a hard Day's Journey, brought 
into a painful Exercise at Night, in which I had to trace 
back, and view over the Steps I had taken from my first 
Moving in the Visit; and though I had to bewail some 

John Woolman's Journal 1 1 1 

Weakness which, at Times, had attended me, yet I could 
not find that I had ever given way to a wilful Disobedience : 
And then, as I believed I had, under a Sense of Duty, 
come thus far, I was now earnest in Spirit, beseeching 
the Lord to shew me what I ought to do. In this great 
Distress I grew jealous of myself, lest the Desire of Reputa- 
tion, as a Man firmly settled to persevere through Dangers, 
or the Fear of Disgrace arising on my returning without 
performing the Visit, might have some Place in me: Thus 
I lay, full of Thoughts, great Part of the Night, while 
my beloved Companion lay and slept by me; till the 
Lord, my gracious Father, who saw the Conflicts of my 
Soul, was pleased to give Quietness: Then I was again 
strengthened to commit my Life, and all Things relating 
thereto, into his heavenly Hands; and, getting a little 
Sleep toward Day, when Morning came we arose. 

On the fourteenth Day of the sixth Month, we sought 
out and visited all the Indians hereabout that we could 
meet with; they being chiefly in one Place, about a Mile 
from where we lodged, in all perhaps twenty. Here I 
expressed the Care I had on my Mind for their Good; 
and told them, that true Love had made me willing thus 
to leave my Family to come and see the Indians, and 
speak with them in their Houses. Some of them appeared 
kind and friendly. So we took our Leave of these Indians, 
and went up the River Susquehannah, about three Miles, 
to the House of an Indian, called Jacob January, who 
had killed his Hog; and the Women were making store 
of Bread, and preparing to move up the River. Here 
our Pilots left their Canoe when they came down in the 
Spring, which lying dry, was leaky; so that we, being 
detained some Hours, had a good deal of friendly Con- 
versation with the Family; and, eating Dinner with them, 
we made them some small Presents. Then, putting our 
Baggage in the Canoe, some of them pushed slowly up the 
Stream, and the rest of us rode our Horses; and swim- 
ming them over a Creek, called Lahawahamunk, we 
pitched our Tent a little above it, there being a Shower 
in the Evening: And, in a Sense of God's Goodness in 
helping me in my Distress, sustaining me under Trials, 

1 1 2 John Woolman's Journal 

and inclining my Heart to trust in him, I lay down in an 
humble bowed Fram'e of Mind, and had a comfortable 

Night's Lodging. 

On the fifteenth Day of the sixth Month, we proceeded 
forward till the Afternoon; when, a Storm appearing, 
we met our Canoe at an appointed Place; and, the Rain 
continuing, we stayed all Night, which was so heavy, that 
it beat through our Tent, and wet us and our Baggage. 

On the sixteenth Day, we found, on our Way, abun- 
dance of Trees blown down with the Storm the Day 
before ; and had Occasion reverently to consider the kind 
Dealings of the Lord, who provided a safe Place for us 
in a Valley, while this Storm continued. By the falling 
of abundance of Trees across our Path, we were much 
hindered, and in some Swamps our Way was so stopped, 
that we got through with extreme Difficulty. 

I had this Day often to consider myself as a Sojourner 
in this World; and a Belief in the All-sufficiency of God 
to support his People in their Pilgrimage felt comfortable 
to me; and I was industriously employed to get to a 
State of perfect Resignation. 

We seldom saw our Canoe but at appointed Places, 
by reason of the Path going off from the River; and, 
this Afternoon, Job Chilaway, an Indian from Wehaloo- 
sing, who talks good English, and is acquainted with 
several People in and about Philadelphia, met our People 
on the River; and^ understanding where we expected 
to lodge, pushed back about six Miles, and came to us 
after Night; and in a While our own Canoe came, it being 
hard Work pushing up Stream. Job told us, that an 
Indian came in Haste to their Town yesterday, and told 
them, that three Warriours, coming from some Distance, 
lodged in a Town above Wehaloosing a few Nights past; 
and that these three Men were going against the English 
at Juniata. Job was going down the River to the Pro- 
vince-store at Shamokin. Though I was so far favoured 
with Health as to continue travelling, yet, through the 
various Difficulties in our Journey, and the different Way 
of living from what I had been used to, I grew sick; and 
the News of these Warriours being on their March so 

John Woolman's Journal 113 

near us, and not knowing whether we might not fall in 
with them, was a fresh Trial of my Faith; and though, 
through the Strength of divine Love, I had several Times 
been enabled to commit myself to the divine Disposal, 
I still found the Want of my Strength to be renewed, 
that I might persevere therein; and my Cries for Help 
were put up to the Lord, who, in great Mercy, gave me 
a resigned Heart, in which I found Quietness. 
(, On the seventeenth Day, parting from Job Chilaway, 
we went on, and reached Wehaloosing about the Middle 
of the Afternoon, and the first Indian that we saw was 
a Woman of a modest Countenance, with a Bible, who first 
spake to our Guide ; and then, with a harmonious Voice, 
expressed her Gladness at seeing us, having before heard 
of our Coming: Then, by the Direction of our Guide, we 
sat down on a Log; and he went to the Town, to tell the 
People we were come. My Companion and I sitting thus 
together, in a deep inv/ard Stillness, the poor Woman 
came and sat near us ; and, great Awfulness coming over 
us, we rejoiced in a Sense of God's Love manifested to 
our poor Souls. After a While, we heard a Conkshell 
blow several Times, and then came John Curtis, and 
another Indian Man, who kindly invited us into a House 
near the Town, where we found, I suppose, about sixty 
People sitting in Silence; and, after sitting a short Time, 
I stood up, and in some Tenderness of Spirit acquainted 
them with the Nature of my Visit, and that a Concern 
for their Good had made me willing to come thus far to 
see them; all in a few short Sentences, which some of 
them understanding interpreted to the others, and there 
appeared Gladness amongst them. Then I shewed them 
my Certificate, which was explained to them; and the 
Moravian, who overtook us on the Way, being now here, 
bade me welcome. 

On the eighteenth Day: We rested ourselves this Fore- 
noon; and the Indians, knowing that the Moravian and 
I were of different religious Societies, and as some of their 
People had encouraged him to come and stay a While 
with them, were, I believe, concerned that no Jarring 
or Discord might be in their Meetings: And they, I 

1 14 John Woolman's Journal 

suppose, having conferred together, acquainted me, that 
the People, at my Request, would, at any Time, come 
together, and hold Meetings; and also told me, that 
they expected the Moravian would speak in their settled 
Meetings, which are commonly held Morning and near 
Evening. So I found Liberty in my Heart to speak to 
the Moravian, and told him of the Care I felt on my 
Mind for the Good of these People; and that I believed 
no ill Effects would follow it, if I sometimes spake in their 
Meetings when Love engaged me thereto, without calling 
them together at Times when they did not meet of course : 
Whereupon he expressed his Good-will toward my speak- 
ing, at any Time, all that I found in my Heart to say: 
So, near Evening, I was at their Meeting, where the pure 
Gospel-love was felt, to the tendering some of our Hearts ; 
and the Interpreters, endeavouring to acquaint the People 
with what I said in short Sentences, found some Difficulty, 
as none of them were quite perfect in the English and 
Delaware Tongues; so they helped one another, and we 
laboured along, divine Love attending: And afterwards, 
feeling my Mind covered with the Spirit of Prayer, I 
told the Interpreters that I found it in my Heart to pray 
to God, and believed, if I prayed aright, he would hear 
me, and expressed my Willingness for them to omit 
interpreting; so our Meeting ended with a Degree of 
divine Love : And, before the People went out, I observed 
Papunehang (the Man who had been zealous in labour- 
ing for a Reformation in that Town, being then very 
tender) spoke to one of the Interpreters ; and I was after- 
wards told that he said in Substance as follows: " I love 
to feel where Words come from." 

"^ On the nineteenth Day, and first of the Week: This 
Morning, in the Meeting, the Indian, who came with the 
Moravian, being also a Member of that Society, prayed; 
and then the Moravian spake a short Time to the People : 
And, in the Afternoon, they coming together, and my 
Heart being filled with a heavenly Care for their Good, 
I spake to them a While by Interpreters; but none of 
them being perfect in the Work, and I, feeling the Current 
of Love run strong, told the Interpreters, that I believed 

John Woolman's Journal 1 1 5 

some of the People would understand me, and so I pro- 
ceeded: In which Exercise I believe the Holy Ghost 
wrought on some Hearts to Edification, where all the 
Words were not understood, I looked upon it as a Time 
of divine Favour, and my Heart was tendered and truly 
thankful before the Lord; and, after I sat down, one of 
the Interpreters seemed spirited to give the Indians the 
Substance of what I had said. 

Before our first Meeting, this Morning, I was led to 
meditate on the manifold Difficulties of these Indians, 
who, by the Permission of the six Nations, dwell in these 
Parts; and a near Sympathy with them was raised in me; 
and, my Heart being enlarged in the Love of Christ, I 
thought that the affectionate Care of a good Man for his 
only Brother in Affliction does not exceed what I then 
felt for that People. 

I came to this Place through much Trouble; and 
though, through the Mercies of God, I believed, that if I 
died in the Journey, it would be well with me; yet the 
Thoughts of falling into the Hands of Indian Warriours 
were, in Times of Weakness, afflicting to me ; and, being of 
a tender Constitution of Body, the Thoughts of Captivity 
amongst them were, at Times, grievous; as supposing, 
that they being strong and hardy, might demand Service 
of me beyond what I could well bear; but the Lord alone 
was my Keeper; and I believed, if I went into Captivity, 
it would be for some good End : And thus, from Time to 
Time, my Mind was centered in Resignation, in which I 
always found Quietness. And now, this Day, though I had 
the same dangerous Wilderness between me and Home, 
I was inwardly joyful that the Lord had strengthened me 
to come on this Visit, and manifested a fatherly Care over 
me in my poor lowly Condition, when in mine own Eyes 
I appeared inferior to many amongst the Indians. 
: When the last-mentioned Meeting was ended, it being 
Night, Papunehang went to Bed; and, one of the In- 
terpreters sitting by me, I observed Papunehang spoke 
with an harmonious Voice, I suppose a Minute or two; 
and, asking the Interpreter, I was told, that " He was 
expressing his Thankfulness to God for the Favours he 

1 1 6 John Woolman's Journal 

had received that Day; and prayed that he would 
continue to favour him with that same, which he had 
experienced in that Meeting." And though Papune- 
HANG had before agreed to receive the Moravian, and join 
with them, he still appeared kind and loving to us. 

On the twentieth Day I was at two Meetings, and silent 
in them. 

The twenty -first Day: This Morning, in Meeting, my 
Heart was enlarged in pure Love amongst them, and, in 
short plain Sentences, I expressed several Things that 
rested upon me, which one of the Interpreters gave the 
People pretty readily; after which, the Meeting ended 
in Supplication, and I had Cause humbly to acknowledge 
the Loving-kindness of the Lord towards us; and then 
I believed that a Door remained open for the faithful 
Disciples of Jesus Christ to labour amongst these People. 

I now feeling my Mind at Liberty to return, took my 
Leave of them in general, at the Conclusion of what I 
said in Meeting; and so we prepared to go homeward: 
But some of their most active Men told us, that, when 
we were ready to move, the People would choose to come 
and shake Hands with us ; which those who usually come 
to Meeting did : And, from a secret Draught in my Mind, 
I went amongst some who did not use to go to Meeting, 
and took my Leave of them also : And the Moravian and 
his Indian Interpreter appeared respectful to us at part- 
ing. This Town stands on the Bank of Susquehannah, 
and consists, I believe, of about forty Houses, mostly 
compact together; some about thirty feet long, and 
eighteen wide, some bigger, some less; mostly built of 
split Plank, one End set in the Ground, and the other 
pinned to a Plate, on which lay Rafters, and covered with 
Bark. I understand a great Flood last Winter overflowed 
the chief Part of the Ground where the Town stands; 
and some were now about moving their Houses to higher 

We expected only two Indians to be our Company; 
but, when we were ready to go, we found many of them 
were going to Bethlehem with Skins and Furs, who chose 
to go in Company with us: So they loaded two Canoes, 

John Woolman's Journal 117 

which they desired us to go in, telling us, that the Waters 
were so raised with the Rains, that the Horses should 
be taken by such as were better acquainted with the 
Fording-places : So we, with several Indians, went in the 
Canoes, and others went on Horses, there being seven 
besides ours. And we meeting with the Horsemen once 
on the Way by Appointment, and that near Night, a 
little below a Branch called Tankhannah, we lodged there; 
and some of the young Men going out a little before 
Dusk with their Guns, brought in a Deer. 

On the twenty-second Day, through Diligence, we 
reached Wioming before Night, and understood the 
Indians were mostly gone from this Place : Here we went 
up a small Creek into the Woods with our Canoes, and, 
pitching our Tent, carried out our Baggage; and before 
Dark our Horses came to us. 

On the twenty-third Day in the Morning their Horses 
were loaded, and we prepared our Baggage, and so set 
forward, being in all fourteen; and with diligent Travel- 
ling, were favoured to get near half-way to Fort-Allen. 
The Land on this Road from Wioming to our Frontier 
being mostly poor, and good Grass scarce, they chose a 
Piece of low Ground to lodge on, as the best for grazing; 
and I, having sweated much in Travelling, and being 
weary, slept sound; I perceived in the Night that I had 
taken Cold, of which I was favoured to get better soon. 

On the twenty-fourth Day we passed Fort-Allen, and 
lodged near it in the Woods. 

Having forded the westerly Branch of Delaware three 
Times, we thereby had a shorter Way, and missed going 
over the Top of the Blue Mountains, called the second 
Ridge. In the second Time fording, where the River 
cuts through the Mountain, the Waters being rapid, and 
pretty deep, and my Companion's Mare being a tall, 
tractable Animal, he sundry Times drove her back through 
the River, and they loaded her with the Burthens of some 
small Horses, which they thought not sufficient to come 
through with their Loads. 

The Troubles westward, and the Difficulty for Indians 
to pass through our Frontier, I apprehend, was one 

1 1 8 John Woolman's Journal 

Reason why so many came; as expecting that our being 
in Company would prevent the outside Inhabitants from 
being surprised. 

On the twenty-fifth Day we reached Bethlehem, taking 
Care on the Way to keep foremost, and to acquaint 
People on and near the Road who these Indians were: 
This we found very needful; for the Frontier Inhabitants 
were often alarmed at the Report of English being killed 
by Indians westward. 

Amongst our Company were some whom I did not 
remember to have seen at Meeting, and some of these, 
at first, were very reserved; but, we being several Days 
together, and behaving friendly toward them, and making 
them suitable Returns for the Services they did us, they 
became more free and social. 

On the twenty-sixth Day and first of the Week, having 
carefully endeavoured to settle all Affairs with the Indians 
relative to our Journey, we took Leave of them, and I 
thought they generally parted with us affectionately; so 
we, getting to Richland, had a very comfortable Meeting 
amongst our Friends : Here I parted with my kind Friend 
and Companion, Benjamin Parvin; and, accompanied 
by my Friend, Samuel Foulk, we rode to John Cad- 
wallader's, from whence I reached Home the next Day, 
where I found my Family middling well; and they, and 
my Friends, all along appeared glad to see me return 
from a Journey which they apprehended dangerous: 
But my Mind, while I was out, had been so employed in 
striving for a perfect Resignation, and I had so often 
been confirmed in a Belief, that whatever the Lord might 
be pleased to allot for me, would work for Good, I was 
careful lest I should admit any Degree of Selfishness in 
being glad over much, and laboured to improve by those 
Trials in such a Manner as my gracious Father and 
Protector intends for me. Between the English In- 
habitants and Wehaloosing we had only a narrow Path, 
which in many Places is much grown up with Bushes, 
and interrupted by abundance of Trees lying across it; 
these, together with the Mountains, Swamps, and rough 
Stones, make it a difficult Road to travel : and the more 

John Woolman's Journal 1 1 9 

so, for that Rattle-snakes abound there, of which we 
killed four: People, who have never been in such Places, 
have but an imperfect Idea of them; but I was not only- 
taught Patience, but also made thankful to God, who 
thus led me about and instructed me, that I might have 
a quick and lively Feeling of the Afflictions of my Fellow- 
creatures, whose Situation in Life is difficult. 


His religious Conversation with a Company met to see the 
Tricks of a Juggler — His Account of John Smith's 
Advice, and of the Proceedings of a Committee, at the 
Yearly-meeting in 1764 — Contemplations on the Nature 
of true Wisdom, occasioned by hearing of the Cruelty of 
the Indians to their Captives — His visiting the Families 
of Friends at Mount-Holly, Mansfield, and Burlington, 
in 1764, and the Meetings on the Sea-Coast, from Cape- 
May, toward Squan, in 1765 — His Visit to the lower 
Counties on Delaware, and the eastern Shore of Maryland, 
in 1766, in Company with John Sleeper; with some 
Account of Joseph Nichols and his Followers; and 
Observations on the different State of the first Settlers in 
Pennsylvania, who depended on their own Labour, and 
those of the southern Provinces, who kept Negroes — His 
visiting the northern Parts of New-Jersey the same Year, 
and the western Parts of Maryland and Pennsylvania in 
1767, and afterwards other Parts of Pennsylvania, and 
the Families of Friends at Mount-Holly; and again, 
several Parts of Maryland in 1768 — Farther Considera- 
tions on keeping Slaves ; and his Concern for having 
formerly, as an Executor, been Party to the Sale of one ; 
and what he did in Consequence of it — Thoughts on 
Friends exercising Offices in civil Government 

The latter Part of the Summer, 1763; there came a 
Man to Mount-Holly y who had before pubhshed, by a 
printed Advertisement, that, at a certain Pubhck-house, 
he would shew many wonderful Operations, which he 
therein enumerated. 

This Man, at the Time appointed, did, by slight of Hand, 
sundry Things; which, to those gathered, appeared 

The next Day, I, hearing of it, and understanding that 
the Shew was to be continued the next Night, and the 
People to meet about Sun-set, felt an Exercise on that 
Account : So I went to the Publick-house in the Evening, 
and told the Man of the House that I had an Inclination 


John Woolman's Journal 1 2 1 

to spend a Part of the Evening there; with which he 
signified that he was content. Then, sitting down by 
the Door, I spake to the People as they came together, 
concerning this Shew; and, more coming and sitting 
down with us, the Seats of the Door were mostly filled; 
and I had Conversation with them in the Fear of the 
Lord, and laboured to convince them that, thus assem- 
bling to see those Tricks or Slights of Hand, and bestowing 
their Money to support Men, who, in that Capacity, were 
of no Use in the World, was contrary to the Nature of 
the Christian Religion. 

There was one of the Company, who, for a Time, 
endeavoured, by Arguments, to shew the Reasonableness 
of their Proceedings herein; but, after considering some 
Texts of Scripture, and calmly debating the Matter, he 
gave up the Point. So, having spent about an Hour 
amongst them, and feeling my Mind easy, I de- 

At our Yearly-meeting at Philadelphia^ on the twenty- 
fifth Day of the ninth Month, 1764, John Smith, of 
Marlborough, aged upwards of eighty Years, a faithful 
Minister, though not eloquent, stood up in our Meeting 
of Ministers and Elders, and, appearing to be under a 
great Exercise of Spirit, informed Friends in Substance 
as follows: to wit, " That he had been a Member of the 
Society upwards of sixty Years, and well remembered, 
that in those early Times Friends were a plain lowly- 
minded People; and that there was much Tenderness 
and Contrition in their Meetings. — That, at twenty Years 
from that Time, the Society, increasing in Wealth, and 
in some Degree conforming to the Fashions of the World, 
true Humility was less apparent, and their Meetings, in 
general, not so lively and edifying. — That, at the End 
of forty Years, many of them were grown very rich; that 
wearing of fine costly Garments, and using of silver (and 
other) Watches, became customary with them, their 
Sons and their Daughters, and many of the Society made 
a specious Appearance in the World; which Marks of 
outward Wealth and Greatness appeared on some in our 
Meetings of Ministers and Elders; and as these Things 

122 John Woolman's Journal 

became more prevalent, so the powerful Overshadowings 
of the Holy Ghost were less manifest in the Society. — 
That there had been a continued Increase of these Ways 
of Life even until now; and that the Weakness which 
hath now overspread the Society, and the Barrenness 
manifest amongst us, are Matter of much Sorrow." He 
then mentioned the Uncertainty of his attending these 
Meetings in future, expecting his Dissolution was now 
near; and, having tenderly expressed his Concern for us, 
signified that he had seen in the true Light that the Lord 
would bring back his People from these Things into 
which they were thus degenerated; but that his faithful 
Servants must first go through great and heavy Exercises 

On the twenty-ninth Day, the Committee, appointed 
by the Yearly-meeting to visit the Quarterly and Monthly- 
meetings, now gave an Account in Writing of their Pro- 
ceedings in that Service; in which they signified, that, 
in the Course of it, they had been apprehensive that some 
Persons holding Offices in Government, inconsistent with 
our Principles, and others, who kept Slaves, remaining 
active Members in our Meetings of Discipline, had been 
one Means of Weakness more and more prevailing in the 
Management thereof in some Places. After this Report 
was read, an Exercise revived on my Mind, which, at 
Times, had attended me several Years, and inward Cries 
to the Lord were raised in me, that the Fear of Man might 
not prevent me from doing what he required of me; 
and standing up, I spake in Substance as follows: "I 
have felt a Tenderness in my Mind, towards Persons, in 
two Circumstances mentioned in that Report; that is, 
toward such active Members as keep Slaves, and such as 
hold Offices in civil Government; and have desired, that 
Friends, in all their Conduct, may be kindly affectioned 
one toward another. Many Friends, who keep Slaves, 
are under some Exercise on that Account; and, at Times, 
think about trying them with Freedom; but find many 
Things in their Way: And the Way of Living, and annual 
Expences of some of them, are such, that it seems im- 
practicable for them to set their Slaves free, without 

John Woolman's Journal 123 

changing their own Way of Life. It has been my Lot 
to be often abroad; and I have observed in some Places, 
at Quarterly and Yearly-meetings, and at some Houses 
where travelling Friends and their Horses are often 
entertained, that the yearly Expence of Individuals 
therein is very considerable : And Friends, in some Places, 
crouding much on Persons in these Circumstances for 
Entertainment, hath often rested as a Burthen on my 
Mind for some Years past; and I now express it in the 
Fear of the Lord, greatly desiring that Friends now 
present may duly consider it." 

In the Fall of this Year, having hired a Man to work, 
I perceived, in Conversation, that he had been a Soldier 
in the late War on this Continent; and, in the Evening, 
giving a Narrative of his Captivity amongst the Indians, 
he informed me that he saw two of his Fellow-captives 
tortured to Death in a very cruel Manner. 

This Relation affected me with Sadness, under which 
I went to Bed ; and, the next Morning, soon after I awoke, 
a fresh and living Sense of divine Love was spread over 
my Mind; in which I had a renewed Prospect of the 
Nature of that Wisdom from above, which leads to a 
right Use of all Gifts, both spiritual and temporal, and 
gives Content therein: Under a Feeling thereof, I wrote 
as follows: 

" Hath he, who gave me a Being attended with many 
Wants unknown to Brute-creatures, given me a Capacity 
superior to theirs ; and shewn me, that a moderate Appli- 
cation to Business is proper to my present Condition; 
and that this, attended with his Blessing, may supply all 
outward Wants, while they remain within the Bounds 
he hath fixed; and no imaginary Wants, proceeding from 
an evil Spirit, have any Place in me? Attend then, O 
my Soul! to this pure Wisdom, as thy sure Conductor 
through the manifold Dangers in this World. 

"Doth Pride lead to Vanity? Doth Vanity form 
imaginary Wants? Do these Wants prompt Men to 
exert their Power in requiring that of others, which they 
themselves would rather be excused from, were the same 
required of them? 

K 402 

1 24 John Woolman's Journal 

" Do these Proceedings beget hard Thoughts ? Do hard 
Thoughts, when ripe, become Malice? Does Malice, 
when ripe, become revengeful; and, in the End, inflict 
terrible Pains on their Fellow - creatures, and spread 
Desolation in the World ? 

" Doth Mankind, walking in Uprightness, delight in each 
other's Happiness? And do these Creatures, capable 
of this Attainment, by giving way to an evil Spirit, 
employ their Wit and Strength to afflict and destroy one 
another ? 

" Remember then, my Soul ! the Quietude of those 
in whom Christ governs, and in all thy Proceedings feel 
after it. 

" Doth he condescend to bless thee with his Presence? 
To move and influence to Action? To dwell in thee, 
and walk in thee? Remember then thy Station, as a 
Being sacred to God; accept of the Strength freely 
offered thee; and take heed that no Weakness, in con- 
forming to expensive, unwise, and hard-hearted, Customs, 
gendering to Discord and Strife, be given way to. Doth 
he claim my Body as his Temple, and graciously grant 
that I may be sacred to him ? ! that I may prize this 
Favour; and that my whole Life may be conformable 
to this Character ! 

" Remember, my Soul ! that the Prince of Peace is thy 
Lord : That he communicates his unmixed Wisdom to his 
Family ; that they, living in perfect Simplicity, may give 
no just Cause of Offence to any Creature, but may walk 
as he walked." 

Having felt an Openness in my Heart toward visiting 
Families in our own Meeting, and especially in the Town 
of Mount-Holly, the Place of my Abode, I mentioned it 
in our Monthly-meeting the Fore-part of the Winter, 
1764; which being agreed to, and several Friends of 
our Meeting being united in the Exercise, we proceeded 
therein; and, through divine Favour, were helped in the 
Work, so that it appeared to me as a fresh reviving 
of godly Care amongst Friends: And, the latter Part of 
the same Winter, I joined my Friend William Jones, 
in a Visit to Friends Families in Mansfield; in which 

John Woolman's Journal 125 

Labour I had Cause to admire the Goodness of the Lord 
towards us. 

Having felt my Mind drawn toward a Visit to Friends 
along the Sea-coast from Cape-May to near Squan ; and 
also to visit some People in those Parts, amongst whom 
there is no settled Worship; I joined with my beloved 
Friend, Benjamin Jones, in a Visit there, having Friends 
Unity therein: And, setting off the twenty-fourth Day 
of the tenth Month, 1765, we had a prosperous and 
very satisfactory Journey ; feeling, at Times, through the 
Goodness of the heavenly Shepherd, the Gospel to flow 
freely toward a poor People scattered in those Places: 
And soon after our Return, I joined my Friends, John 
Sleeper and Elizabeth Smith, in visiting Friends 
Families at Burlington, there being at this Time about 
fifty Families of our Society in that City; and we had 
Cause humbly to adore our heavenly Father, who bap' 
tized us into a Feeling of the State of the People, and 
strengthened us to labour in true Gospel-love amongst 

An Exercise having, at Times, for several Years attended 
me, in regard to paying a religious Visit to Friends on 
the eastern Shore of Maryland : Such was the Nature of 
this Exercise, that I believed the Lord moved me to 
travel on Foot amongst them, that, by so travelling, I 
might have a more lively Feeling of the Condition of the 
oppressed Slaves, set an Example of Lowliness before 
the Eyes of their Masters, and be more out of the Way of 
Temptation to unprofitable Converse. 

The Time now drawing near in which I believed it my 
Duty to lay my Concern before our Monthly-meeting, I 
perceived, in Conversation with my beloved Friend, John 
Sleeper, that he was under a Concern to travel the same 
Way, and also to travel on Foot in the Form of a Servant 
amongst them, as he expressed it. This he told me before 
he knew aught of my Exercise. 

We, being thus drawn the same Way, laid our Exercise 
and the Nature of it before Friends; and, obtaining 
Certificates, we set off the sixth Day of the fifth Month, 
1766; and were at Meetings with Friends at Wilmmgton, 

126 John Woolman's Journal 

Duck-Creek, Little-Creek, and Motherkill ; my Heart being 
sundry Times tendered under the divine Influence^ and 
enlarged in Love toward the People amongst whom we 

From Motherkill, we crossed the Country about thirty- 
five Miles to Friends at Tuckahoe in Maryland, and had 
a Meeting there and at Marshy-Creek. 

At these^ our three last Meetings^ were a considerable 
Number of People, Followers of one Joseph Nichols, a 
Preacher; who, I understand, is not in outward Fellow- 
ship with any religious Society of People, but professeth 
nearly the same Principles as our Society doth, and often 
travels up and down appointing Meetings, to which many 
People come, I heard some Friends speaking of some 
of their Neighbours, who had been irreligious People, 
that were now his Followers, and were become sober 
well-behaved Men and Women. 

Some Irregularities, I hear, have been amongst the 
People at several of his Meetings; but, from the whole of 
what I have perceived, I believe the Man and some of his 
Followers are honestly disposed, but that skilful Fathers 
are wanting amongst them: From hence we went to 
Choptank and Third-Haven ; and thence to Queen Anne's. 
The Weather having some Days past been hot and dry, 
and we, to attend Meetings pursuant to Appointment, 
having travelled pretty steadily, and had hard Labour 
in Meetings, I grew weakly, at which I was, for a Time, 
discouraged; but, looking over our Journey, and think- 
ing how the Lord had supported our Minds and Bodies, 
so that we got forward much faster than I expected 
before we came out, I now saw that I had been in Danger 
of too strongly desiring to get soon through the Journey, 
and that this bodily Weakness, now attending me, was 
a Kindness to me; and then, in Contrition of Spirit, I 
became very thankful to my gracious Father, for this 
Manifestation of his Love; and, in humble Submission 
to his Will, my Trust was renewed in him. 

On this Part of our Journey, I had many Thoughts 
on the different Circumstances of Friends, who inhabit 
Pennsylvania and Jersey, from those who dwell in Mary- 

John Woolman's Journal 127 

land, Virginia, and Carolina. Pennsylvania and New- 
Jersey were settled by many Friends^ who were convinced 
of our Principles in England in Times of Sufferings and, 
coming over, bought Lands of the Natives, and applied 
themselves to Husbandry in a peaceable Way; and 
many of their Children were taught to labour for their 

Few Friends, I believe, came from England to settle 
in any of these southern Provinces; but, by the faithful 
Labours of travelling Friends in early Times, there were 
considerable Convincements amongst the Inhabitants of 
these Parts. Here I remembered my reading of the war- 
like Disposition of many of the first Settlers in those 
Provinces, and of their numerous Engagements with the 
Natives, in which much Blood was shed, even in the 
Infancy of those Colonies. These People, inhabiting those 
Places, being grounded in Customs contrary to the pure 
Truth, when some of them were affected with the powerful 
preaching of the Word of Life, and joined in Fellowship 
with our Society, they had a great Work to go through. 
It is observable, in the History of the keformation from 
Popery, that it had a gradual Progress from Age to Age: 
The Uprightness of the first Reformers, in attending to 
the Light and Understanding given them, opened the 
Way for sincere-hearted People to proceed farther after- 
ward ; and thus, each one truly fearing God, and labouring 
in those Works of Righteousness appointed for him in 
his Day, findeth Acceptance with him: Though, through 
the Darkness of the Times, and the Corruption of Manners 
and Customs, some upright Men have had little more for 
their Day's Work than to attend to the righteous Principle 
in their Minds, as it related to their own Conduct in Life, 
without pointing out to others the whole Extent of that, 
which the same Principle would lead succeeding Ages into. 
Thus, for Instance, amongst an imperious warlike People, 
supported by oppressed Slaves, some of these Masters, I 
suppose, are awakened to feel and see their Error; and, 
through sincere Repentance, cease from Oppression, and 
become like Fathers to their Servants; shewing, by their 
Example, a Pattern of Humility in living, and Modera- 

128 John Woolman's Journal 

tion in governing, for the Instruction and Admonition of 
their oppressing Neighbours; those, without carrying 
the Reformation farther, I believe, have found Accept- 
ance with the Lord. Such was the Beginning; and those 
who succeeded them, and have faithfully attended to the 
Nature and Spirit of the Reformation, have seen the 
Necessity of proceeding forward, and not only to instruct 
others, by their Example, in governing well, but also to 
use Means to prevent their Successors from having so 
much Power to oppress others. 

Here I was renewedly confirmed in my Mind, that 
the Lord (whose tender Mercies are over all his Works, 
and whose Ear is open to the Cries and Groans of the 
Oppressed) is graciously moving on the Hearts of People, 
to draw them off from the Desire of Wealth, and bring 
them into such an humble, lowly, Way of Living, that 
they may see their Way clearly, to repair to the Standard 
of true Righteousness; and not only break the Yoke of 
Oppression, but know him to be their Strength and 
Support in a Time of outward Affliction. 

We, passing on, crossed Chester-River; and had a 
Meeting there, and at Cecil and Sassafras. Through my 
bodily Weakness, joined with a heavy Exercise of Mind, 
it was to me an humbling Dispensation, and I had a very 
lively Feeling of the State of the Oppressed; yet I often 
thought, that what I suffered was little, compared with 
the Sufferings of the blessed Jesus, and many of his 
faithful Followers; and may say, with Thankfulness, I 
was made content. 

From Sassafras we went pretty directly Home, where 
we found our Families well; and, for several Weeks after 
our Return, I had often to look over our Journey: And 
though it appeared to me as a small Service, and that 
some faithful Messengers will yet have more bitter Cups 
to drink in those southern Provinces, for Christ's Sake, 
than we had; yet I found Peace in that I had been 
helped to walk in Sincerity, according to the Under- 
standing and Strength given me. 

On the thirteenth Day of the eleventh Month, 1766, 
with the Unity of Friends at our Monthly-meeting, in 

John Woolman's Journal 129 

Company with my beloved Friend, Benjamin Jones, I 
set out on a Visit to Friends in the upper Part of this 
Province, having had Drawings of Love in my Heart that 
Way a considerable Time: We travelled as far as Hard- 
wick ; and I had inward Peace in my Labours of Love 
amongst them. 

Through the humbling Dispensations of divine Pro- 
vidence, my Mind hath been brought into a farther 
Feeling of the Difficulties of Friends and their Servants 
south-westward; and being often engaged in Spirit on 
their Account, I believed it my Duty to walk into some 
Parts of the western Shore of Maryland, on a religious 
Visit; and, having obtained a Certificate from Friends of 
our Monthly-meeting, I took my Leave of my Family 
under the heart- tendering Operation of Truth; and, on 
the twentieth Day of the fourth Month, 1767, I rode to 
the Ferry opposite to Philadelphia, and from thence 
walked to William Horne's, at Derby, that Evening; 
and next Day pursued my journey alone, and reached 
Concord week-day Meeting. 

Discouragements and a Weight of Distress had, at 
Times, attended me in this lonesome Walk; through 
which Afflictions I was mercifully preserved: And now, 
sitting down with Friends, my Mind was turned toward 
the Lord, to wait for his holy Leadings; who, in infinite 
Love, was pleased to soften my Heart into an humble 
Contrition, and did renewedly strengthen me to go forward; 
so that to me it was a Time of heavenly Refreshment in 
a silent Meeting. 

The next Day I came to New-Garden week-day Meeting, 
in which I sat with Bowedness of Spirit; and, being 
baptized into a Feeling of the State of some present, the 
Lord gave us a heart- tendering Season; to his Name be 
the Praise. 

I passed on, and was at Nottingham Monthly-meeting; 
and at a Meeting at Little-Britain on First-day: And in 
the Afternoon several Friends came to the House where 
I lodged, and we had a little Afternoon-meeting; and, 
through the humbling Power of Truth, I had to admire 
the Loving-kindness of the Lord manifested to usl 

130 John Woolman's Journal 

On the twenty-sixth Day, I crossed Susquehannah ; 
and coming amongst People in outward Ease and Great- 
ness, chiefly on the Labour of Slaves, my Heart was 
much affected; and, in awful Retiredness, my Mind was 
gathered inward to the Lord, being humbly engaged that 
in true Resignation I might receive Instruction from him, 
respecting my Duty amongst this People. 

Though travelling on Foot was wearisome to my Body ; 
yet thus travelling was agreeable to the State of my 

I went gently on, being weakly; and was covered with 
Sorrow and Heaviness, on Account of the spreading pre- 
vailing Spirit of this World, introducing Customs grievous 
and oppressive on one Hand, and cherishing Pride and 
Wantonness on the other. In this lonely Walk, and State 
of Abasement and Humiliation, the State of the Church 
in these Parts was opened before me; and I may truly 
say with the Prophet, " I was bowed down at the hear- 
ing of it; I was dismayed at the seeing of it." Under 
this Exercise, I attended the Quarterly-meeting at Gun- 
powder ; and, in Bowedness of Spirit, I had to open, with 
much Plainness, what I felt respecting Friends living in 
Fullness, on the Labours of the poor oppressed Negroes; 
and that Promise of the Most High was now revived: 
" I will gather all Nations and Tongues; and they shall 
come and see my Glory." — Here the Sufferings of Christ, 
and his tasting Death for every Man, and the Travels, 
Sufferings, and Martyrdoms, of the Apostles and primitive 
Christians, in labouring for the Conversion of the Gentiles, 
were livingly revived in me; and, according to the 
Measure of Strength afforded, I laboured in some Tender- 
ness of Spirit, being deeply affected amongst them: And 
thus the Difference, between the present Treatment which 
these Gentiles, the Negroes, receive at our Hands, and 
the Labours of the primitive Christians for the Conversion 
of the Gentiles was pressed home, and the Power of Truth 
came over us; under a Feeling of which, my Mind was 
united to a tender-hearted People in those Parts; and 
the Meeting concluded in a Sense of God's Goodness 
toward his humble dependent Children. 

John Woolman's Journal 1 3 1 

The next Day was a general Meeting for Worship, 
much crouded; in which I was deeply engaged in inward 
Cries to the Lord for Help, that I might stand wholly 
resigned, and move only as he might be pleased to lead 
me: And I was mercifully helped to labour honestly 
and fervently amongst them, in which I found inward 
Peace; and the Sincere were comforted. 

From hence I turned toward Pipe-Creek, and passed 
on to the Red-Lands ; and had several Meetings amongst 
Friends in those Parts. My Heart was often tenderly 
affected, under a Sense of the Lord's Goodness, in sancti- 
fying my Troubles and Exercises, turning them to my 
Comfort, and, I believe, to the Benefit of many others; 
for, I may say, with Thankfulness, that in this Visit, it 
appeared like a fresh tendering Visitation in most Places. 

I passed on to the western Quarterly-meeting in Penn- 
sylvania ; during the several Days of this Meeting, I was 
mercifully preserved in an inward feeling after the Mind 
of Truth, and my publick Labours tended to my Humilia- 
tion, with which I was content : And, after the Quarterly- 
meeting of Worship ended, I felt Drawings to go to the 
Women's Meeting of Business ; which was very full : And 
here the Humility of Jesus Christ, as a Pattern for us to 
walk by, was livingly opened before me; and in treating 
on it my Heart was enlarged; and it was a baptizing 
Time. From hence I went on; and was at Meetings at 
Concord, Middletown, Providence, and Haddonfield, and 
so Home; where I found my Family well. A sense of 
the Lord's merciful Preservation, in this my Journey, 
excites reverent Thankfulness to him. 

On the second Day of the ninth Month, 1767, with the 
Unity of Friends, I set off on a Visit to Friends in the 
upper Part of Berks and Philadelphia Counties; was at 
eleven Meetings in about two Weeks; and have renewed 
Cause to bow in Reverence before the Lord, who, by the 
powerful Extendings of his humbling Goodness, opened 
my Way amongst Friends, and made the Meetings (I 
trust) profitable to us. And, the Winter following, I 
joined Friends on a Visit to Friends Families, in some 

132 John Woolman's Journal 

Part of our Meeting ; in which Exercise, the pure Influence 
of divine Love made our Visits reviving. 

On the fifth Day of the fifth Month, 1768, I left Home 
under the humbhng Hand of the Lord, having obtained 
a Certificate, in order to visit some Meetings in Maryland , 
and to proceed without a Horse looked clearest to me. 
I was at the Quarterly-meetings at Philadelphia and 
Concord ; and then went on to Chester-River ; and, cross- 
ing the Bay with Friends, was at the Yearly-meeting at 
West-River; thence back to Chester-River ; and, taking 
a few Meetings in my Way, proceeded Home. It was 
a Journey of much inward Waiting; and, as my Eye was 
to the Lord, Way was, several Times, opened to my 
humbling Admiration, when Things had appeared very 

In my Return, I felt a Relief of Mind, very comfortable 
to me; having, through divine Help, laboured in much 
Plainness, both with Friends selected, and in the more 
pubhck Meetings; so that (I trust) the pure Witness, in 
many Minds, was reached. 

The eleventh Day of the sixth Month, 1769. Sundry 
Cases have happened, of late Years, within the Limits of 
our Monthly-meeting, respecting that of exercising pure 
Righteousness toward the Negroes ; in which I have lived 
under a Labour of Heart, that Equity might be steadily 
kept to. On this Account, I have had some close Exer- 
cises amongst Friends; in which, I may thankfully say, 
I find Peace: And, as my Meditations have been on 
universal Love, my own Conduct in Time past became 
of late very grievous to me. 

As Persons, setting Negroes free in our Province, are 
bound by Law to maintain them, in case they have Need 
of Relief, some, who scrupled keeping Slaves for Term of 
Life, in the Time of my Youth, were wont to detain their 
young Negroes in their Service till thirty Years of Age, 
without Wages, on that Account; and with this Custom 
I so far agreed, that I, being joined to another Friend, 
in executing the Will of a deceased Friend, once sold a 
Negro Lad till he might attain the Age of thirty Years, 
and applied the Money to the Use of the Estate. 

John Woolman's Journal 1 3 3 

With Abasement of Heart, I may now say, that some- 
times, as I have sat in a Meeting, with my Heart exercised 
toward that awful Being, who respecteth not Persons nor 
Colours, and have looked upon this Lad, I have felt that 
all was not clear in my Mind respecting him; and as I 
have attended to this Exercise, and fervently sought the 
Lord, it hath appeared to me, that I should make some 
Restitution, but in what Way I saw not till lately ; when, 
being under some Concern that I may be resigned to go 
on a Visit to some Part of the West-Indies, and under close 
Engagement of Spirit, seeking to the Lord for Counsel 
herein, that of my joining in the Sale aforesaid, came 
heavily upon me ; and my Mind, for a Time, was covered 
with Darkness and Sorrow; and, under this sore Affliction, 
my Heart was softened to receive Instruction: And here 
I first saw, that, as I had been one of the two Executors, 
who had sold this Lad nine Years longer than is common 
for our own Children to serve, so I should now offer a 
Part of my Substance to redeem the last Half of that 
nine Years ; but, as the Time was not yet come, I executed 
a Bond, binding me and my Executors to pay to the 
Man, he was sold to, what, to candid Men, might appear 
equitable for the last four Years and a Half of his Time, 
in case the said Youth should be living, and in a Con- 
dition likely to provide comfortably for himself. 

The ninth Day of the tenth Month, 1769. My Heart 
hath often been deeply afflicted under a Feeling I have 
had, that the Standard of pure Righteousness is not lifted 
up to the People by us, as a Society, in that Clearness 
which it might have been, had we been so faithful to the 
Teachings of Christ as we ought to have been: And, as 
my Mind hath been inward to the Lord, the Purity of 
Christ's Government hath been opened in my Under- 
standing; and, under this Exercise, that of Friends being 
active in civil Society, in putting Laws in force which 
are not agreeable to the Purity of Righteousness, hath, 
for several Years, been an increasing Burthen upon me; 
having felt, in the Openings of universal Love, that where 
a People, convinced of the Truth of the inward Teachings 
of Christ, are active in putting Laws in Execution which 

134 John Woolman's Journal 

are not consistent with pure Wisdom, it hath a necessary 
Tendency to bring Dimness over their Minds: And, as 
my Heart hath been thus exercised, and a tender Sym- 
pathy in me toward my Fellow-members, I have, within 
a few Months past, in several Meetings for Discipline, 
expressed my Concern on this Subject. 


His preparing to visit Friends in England — His embarking at 
Chester, in Company with Samuel Emlen, in a Ship 
hound to London — His deep Exercise, in observing the 
Di^cuUies and Hardships the common Sailors are exposed 
to—Considerations on the Dangers to which Youth are ex- 
posed, in being trained to a sea-faring Life ; and its In- 
consistency with a pious Education — His Thoughts in a 
Storm at Sea : With many instructive Contemplations on 
the Voyage — And his Arrival at London 
T , = . 

Having been some Time under a religious Concern to 
prepare for crossing the Seas, in^der to visit Friends 
in the northern Parts of Englandjand more particularly 
Yorkshire; after weighty Consideration, I thought it 
expedient to inform Friends, at our Monthly-meeting at 
Burlington J of it; who, having Unity with me therein, 
gave me a Certificate; and I afterward communicated 
the same to our Quarterly-meeting, and they likewise 
certified their Concurrence therewith. Some Time after 
which, at the general Spring-meeting of Ministers and 
Elders, I thought it my Duty to acquaint them of the 
religious Exercise which attended my Mind; with which 
they likewise signified their Unity by a Certificate, dated 
the twenty-fourth Day of the third Month, 1772, directed 
to Friends in Great-Britain. 

In the fourth Month following, I thought the Time was 
come for me to make some Enquiry for a suitable Con- 
veyance; being apprehensive that, as my Concern was 
principally toward the northern Parts of England, it 
would be most proper to go in a Vessel bound to Liver- 
pool or Whitehaven : And, while I was at Philadelphia, 
deliberating on this Occasion, I was informed, that my 
beloved Friend, Samuel Emlen, jun., intending to go to 
London, and having taken a Passage for himself in the 
Cabbin of a Ship, called Mary and Elizabeth, of which 

136 John Woolman's Journal 

James Sparks was Master, and John Head, of the City 
of Philadelphia, one of the Owners ; and I feeling a Draught 
in my Mind toward the Steerage of the same Ship, went 
first and opened to Samuel the Feeling I had concerning it. 

My beloved Friend appeared glad that I had Thoughts 
of going in the Vessel with him, though my Prospect was 
toward the Steerage; and he, offering to go with me, 
we went on board, first in the Cabbin, a commodious 
Room, and then into the Steerage; where we sat down 
on a Chest, the Sailors being busy about us: Then the 
Owner of the Ship came, and sat down with us. 

Here my Mind was turned toward Christ, the heavenly 
Counsellor; and I feeling, at this Time, my own Will 
subjected, my Heart was contrite before him. 

A Motion was made, by the Owner, to go and sit in the 
Cabbin, as a Place more retired; but I felt easy to leave 
the Ship, and made no Agreement as to a Passage in her; 
but told the Owner, if I took a Passage in the Ship, I 
believed it would be in the Steerage; but did not say 
much as to my Exercise in that Case. 

I went to my Lodgings, and soon after went to Bed, 
and my Mind was under a deep Exercise before the Lord; 
whose helping Hand was manifested to me as I slept 
that Night, and his Love strengthened my Heart. In the 
Morning I went with two Friends on board the Vessel 
again; and, after a short Time spent therein, I went, 
with Samuel Emlen, to the House of the Owner; to 
whom, in the Hearing of Samuel only, I opened my 
Exercise, in relation to a Scruple with regard to a Passage 
in the Cabbin. 

^ After this I agreed for a Passage in the Steerage; and, 
hearing in Town that Joseph White had a Desire to see 
me, I felt the Reviving of a Desire to see him, and went 
then to his House, and next Day Home; where I tarried 
two Nights; and then, early in the Morning, I parted 
with my Family, under a Sense of the humbling Hand of 
God upon me; and going to Philadelphia, had Opportunity 
with several of my beloved Friends; who appeared to be 
concerned for me, on Account of the unpleasant Situation 
of that Part of the Vessel where I was likely to lodge. 

John Woolman's Journal 137 

Having stayed two Nights in Philadelphia, I went the 
next Day to IDerby Monthly-meeting; where, through the 
Strength of divine Love, my Heart was enlarged toward 
the Youth then present; under which I was helped to 
labour in some Tenderness of Spirit. Then, lodging at 
William Horne's, I, with one Friend, went to Chester ; 
where, meeting with Samuel Emlen, we went on board, 
the first Day of the fifth Month, 1772; and, as I sat 
down alone, on a Seat on the Deck, I felt a satisfactory 
Evidence that my Proceedings were not in my own Will, 
but under the Power of the Cross of Christ. 

Seventh Day of the fifth Month. We have had rough 
Weather mostly since I came on board; and the Pas- 
sengers, James Reynolds, John Till-Adams, Sarah 
Logan and her hired Maid, and John Bispham, were all 
sea-sick, more or less, at Times; from which Sickness, 
through the tender Mercies of my heavenly Father, I 
have been preserved; my Afflictions now being of another 

There appeared an Openness in the Minds of the 
Master of the Ship and of the Cabbin-Passengers toward 
me: We were often together on the Deck, and some- 
times in the Cabbin. 

My Mind, through the merciful Help of the Lord, hath 
been preserved in a good Degree, watchful and inward; 
and I have, this Day, great Cause to be thankful, in that 
I remain to feel Quietness of Mind. 
i^- As my lodging in the Steerage, now near a Week, hath 
afforded me sundry Opportunities of seeing, hearing, and 
feeling, with respect to the Life and Spirit of many poor 
Sailors, an inward Exercise of Soul hath attended me, in 
regard to placing our Children and Youth where they 
may be likely to be exampled and instructed in the pure 
Fear of the Lord; and I, being much amongst the Sea- 
men, have, from a Motion of Love, sundry Times taken 
Opportunities, with one of them at a Time alone, and in 
a free Conversation laboured to turn their Minds toward 
the Fear of the Lord: And this Day we had a Meeting in 
the Cabbin, where my Heart was contrite under a Feeling 
of divine Love. 

138 John Woolman's Journal 

Now, concerning Lads being trained up as Seamen; 
I believe a Communication from one Part of the World 
to some other Parts of it, by Sea, is, at Times, consistent 
with the Will of our heavenly Father; and to educate 
some Youth in the Practice of sailing, I believe, may be 
right: But how lamentable is the present Corruption of 
the World! how impure are the Channels through which 
Trade hath a Conveyance! how great is that Danger, 
to which poor Lads are now exposed, when placed on 
shipboard to learn the Art of sailing ! 

O ! that all may take Heed and beware of Covetousness ! 
O that all may learn of Christ, who was meek and low of 
Heart! Then, in faithfully following him, he will teach 
us to be content with Food and Raiment, without respect 
to the Customs or Honours of this World. 

Men, thus redeemed, will feel a tender Concern for their 
Fellow-creatures, and a Desire that those in the lowest 
Stations may be assisted and encouraged; and, where 
Owners of Ships attain to the perfect Law of Liberty, 
and are Doers of the Word, these will be blessed in their 

Rising to work in the Night is not commonly pleasant 
in any case; but, in dark rainy Nights, it is very dis- 
agreeable, even though each Man were furnished with all 
•Conveniences: But, if Men must go out at Midnight, to 
help manage the Ship in the Rain, and, having small 
Room to sleep and lay their Garments in, are often beset 
to furnish themselves for the Watch, their Garments or 
something relating to their Business being wanting and 
not easily found, when, from the Urgency occasioned by 
high Winds, they are hastened and called up suddenly, 
here is a Trial of Patience on the poor Sailors and the 
poor Lads their Companions. 

If, after they have been on Deck several Hours in the 
Night, and come down into the Steerage soaking wet, 
and are so close stowed that proper Convenience for 
change of Garment is not easily come at, but for Want 
of proper Room, their wet Garments are thrown in Heaps, 
and sometimes, through much crouding, are trodden 
•under Foot in going to their Lodgings and getting out of 

John Woolman's Journal 139 

them, and they have great Difficulties, at Times, each 
one to find his own, here are Trials on the poor Sailors. 

Now, as I have been with them in my Lodge, my Heart 
hath often yearned for them, and tender Desires have 
been raised in me, that all Owners and Masters of Vessels 
may dwell in the Love of God, and therein act uprightly; 
and, by seeking less for Gain, and looking carefully to 
their Ways, may earnestly labour to remove all Cause of 
Provocation from the poor Seamen,, either to fret or use 
Excess of Strong-drink; for, indeed, the poor Creatures, 
at Times, in the Wet and Cold, seem to apply to Strong- 
drink to supply the Want of other Convenience. ; 
- Great Reformation in the World is wanting; and the 
Necessity of it, amongst these who do Business on great 
Waters, hath, at this Time, been abundantly opened 
before me. ' 

The eighth Day of the fifth Month. This Morning the 
Clouds gathered, the Wind blew strong from South-east- 
ward, and before Noon increased to that Degree that 
Sailing appeared dangerous. The Seamen then bound 
up some of their Sails, and took down some; and, the 
Storm increasing, they put the Dead-lights, so called, 
into the Cabbin-Windows, and lighted a Lamp as at 

The Wind now blew vehemently, and the Sea wrought 
to that Degree, that an awful Seriousness prevailed in 
the Cabbin, in which I spent, I believe, about seventeen 
Hours; for I believed the poor wet toiling Seamen had 
Need of all the Room in the crouded Steerage, and the 
Cabbin-Passengers had given me frequent Invitations. 

They ceased now from Sailing, and put the Vessel in 
the Posture called, lying- to. 

My Mind, in this Tempest, through the gracious Assist- 
ance of the Lord, was preserved in a good Degree of 
Resignation; and I felt, at Times, a few Words in his 
Love to my Ship-mates, in regard to the All-sufficiency 
of him who formed the great Deep, and whose Care is so 
extensive, that a Sparrow falls not without his Notice; 
and thus, in a tender Frame of Mind, spake to them of 
the Necessity of our yielding, in true Obedience, to the 

L 40^ 

140 John Woolman's Journal 

Instructions of our heavenly Father^ who sometimes, 
through Adversities;, intendeth our Refinement. 

About eleven at Night I went out on the Deck^ when 
the Sea wrought exceedingly, and the high-foaming Waves, 
all round about, had in some Sort the Appearance of Fire, 
but did not give much, if any, Light. 

The Sailor, then at the Helm, said he lately saw a 
Corposant at the Head of the Mast. 

About this Time I observed the Master of the Ship 
ordered the Carpenter to keep on the Deck; and, though 
he said little, I apprehended his Care was, that the 
Carpenter, with his axe, might be in Readiness, in case 
of any Extremity. 

Soon after this, the Vehemency of the Wind abated; 
and, before Morning, they again put the Ship under Sail. 

The tenth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, 
it being fine Weather, we had a Meeting in the Cabbin, 
at which most of the Seamen were present: This Meet- 
ing to me was a strengthening Time. 

The thirteenth Day of the Month. As I continue to 
lodge in the Steerage, I feel an Openness this Morning, 
to express something farther of the State of my Mind, 
in Respect to poor Lads bound Apprentice to learn the 
Art of Sailing. As I believe Sailing is of some Use in 
the World, a Labour of Soul attends me, that the pure 
Counsel of Truth may be humbly waited for in this Case, 
by all concerned in the Business of the Seas. 

A pious Father, whose Mind is exercised for the ever- 
lasting Welfare of his Child, may not, with a peaceable 
Mind, place him out to an Employment amongst a People, 
whose common Course of Life is manifestly corrupt and 
prophane; so great is the present Defect amongst Sea- 
faring Men, in regard to Piety and Virtue : And, through 
an abundant Traffic, and many Ships of War, so many 
People are employed on the Sea, that this Subject of 
placing Lads to the Employment appears very weighty. 

Prophane Examples are very corrupting, and very 
forcible. And as my Mind, Day after Day, and Night 
after Night, hath been affected with a sympathizing 
Tenderness toward poor Children, put to the Employ- 

John Woolman's Journal 141 

ment of Sailors, I have sometimes had weighty Con- 
versation with the Sailors in the Steerage, who were mostly 
respectful to me, and more and more so the longer I was 
with them: They mostly appeared to take kindly what 
I said to them; but their Minds have appeared to be so 
deeply impressed with that almost universal Depravity 
amongst Sailors, that the poor Creatures, in their Answers 
to me on this Subject, have revived in my Remembrance 
that of the degenerate Jews a little before the Captivity, 
as repeated by Jeremiah the Prophet, " There is no 

Now, under this Exercise, a Sense of the Desire of out- 
ward Gain prevailing amongst us hath felt grievous, and 
a strong Call to the professed Followers of Christ hath 
been raised in me, that all may take Heed, lest, through 
loving this present World, they be found in a continued 
Neglect of Duty, with respect to a faithful Labour for a 

Silence, as to every Motion proceeding from the Love 
of Money, and an humble Waiting upon God to know 
his Will concerning us, has now appeared necessary: He 
alone is able to strengthen us to dig deep, to remove all 
which lies between us and the safe Foundation, and so 
direct us in our outward Employments, that pure universal 
Love may shine forth in our Proceedings. 

Desires arising from the Spirit of Truth are pure Desires ; 
and when a Mind, divinely opened toward a young 
Generation, is made sensible of corrupting Examples, 
powerfully working, and extensively spreading amongst 
them, how moving is the Prospect! 

The sixteenth Day of the Month. Wind for several 
Days past often high, what the Sailors call squally, rough 
Sea and frequent Rains. This last Night a very trying 
Night to the poor Seamen: The Water, chief Part of 
the Night, running over the main Deck, and sometimes 
Breaking-waves came on the Quarter-deck. The latter 
Part of the Night, as I lay in Bed, my Mind was humbled 
under the Power of divine Love; and Resignedness to 
the great Creator of the Earth and Seas, renewedly 
wrought in me; whose fatherly Care over his Children 

142 John Woolman's Journal 

feit precious to my Soul: And Desires were now renewed 
in me, to embrace every Opportunity of being inwardly 
acquainted with the Hardships and Difficulties of my 
Fellow-creatures, and to labour in his Love for the 
spreading of pure universal Righteousness on the Earth. 
The Opportunities were frequent of hearing Conversation 
amongst the Sailors, in respect to the Voyages to Africa, 
and the Manner of bringing the deeply-oppressed Slaves 
into our Islands. The Thoughts of their Condition, fre- 
quently in Chains and Fetters on board the Vessels, with 
Hearts loaded with Grief, under the Apprehensions of 
miserable Slavery; my Mind was frequently opened to 
meditate on these Things. 

On the seventeenth Day of the Month, and first of the 
Week, we had a Meeting in the Cabbin; to which the 
Seamen generally came. My Spirit was contrite before 
the Lord; whose Love, at this Time, affected my Heart. 

This Afternoon I felt a tender Sympathy of Soul with 
my poor Wife and Family left behind; in which State, 
my Heart was enlarged in Desires that they may walk 
in that humble Obedience wherein the everlasting Father 
may be their Guide and Support, through all the Diffi- 
culties in this World ; and a Sense of that gracious Assist- 
ance, through which my Mind hath been strengthened to 
take up the Cross and leave them, to travel in the Love 
of Truth, hath begotten Thankfulness in my Heart to 
our great Helper. 

On the twenty-fourth Day of the Month, and first of 
the Week, a clear pleasant Morning : And, as I sat on Deck, 
I felt a Reviving in my Nature; which, through much 
rainy Weather and high Winds, being shut up in a close 
unhealthy Air, was weakened. 

Several Nights of late I felt Breathing difficult; so 
that a little after the rising of the second Watch (which 
is about Midnight) I got up, and stood, I believe, near an 
Hour, with my Face near the Hatchway, to get the fresh 
Air at the small Vacancy under the Hatch-door; which 
is commonly shut down, partly to keep out Rain, and 
sometimes to keep the Breaking-waves from dashing 
into the Steerage. 

John Woolman's Journal 143 

I may, with Thankfulness to the Father of Mercies, 
acknowledge, that, in my present weak State, my Mind 
hath been supported to bear the Affliction with Patience ; 
and have looked at the present Dispensation as a Kind- 
ness from the great Father of Mankind, who, in this my 
floating Pilgrimage, is in some Degree bringing me to feel 
that, which many thousands of my Fellow-creatures 
often suffer in a greater Degree. 

My Appetite failing, the Trial hath been the heavier; 
and I have felt tender Breathings in my Soul after God, 
the Fountain of Comfort, whose inward Help hath sup- 
plied, at Times, the Want of outward Convenience: And 
strong Desires have attended me, that his Family, who 
are acquainted with the Movings of his holy Spirit, 
may be so redeemed from the Love of Money, and from 
that Spirit in which Men seek Honour one of another, 
that in all Business, by Sea or Land, we may constantly 
keep in View the coming of his Kingdom on Earth, as it 
is in Heaven; and, by faithfully following this safe Guide, 
shew forth Examples, tending to lead out of that under 
which the Creation groans ! 

This Day we had a Meeting in the Cabbin; in which 
I was favoured in some Degree to experience the fulfilling 
of that Saying of the Prophet, " The Lord hath been a 
Strength to the Poor, a Strength to the Needy in their 
Distress; " for which, my Heart is bowed in Thankfulness 
before him ! 

The twenty-eighth Day of the Month. — Wet Weather 
of late, small Winds inclining to Calms : Our Seamen have 
cast a Lead, I suppose about one hundred Fathoms, but 
find no Bottom: Foggy Weather this Morning. 

Through the Kindness of the great Preserver of Men 
my Mind remains quiet; and a Degree of Exercise, from 
Day to Day, attends me, that the pure peaceable Govern- 
ment of Christ may spread and prevail amongst Man- 

The leading on of a young Generation in that pure Way 
in which the Wisdom of this World hath no Place; where 
Parents and Tutors, humbly waiting for the heavenly 
Counsellor, may example them in the Truth, as it is in 

144 John Woolman's Journal 

Jesus; — this, for several Days, hath been the Exercise 
of my Mind. 0! how safe, how quiet, is that State, 
where the Soul stands in pure Obedience to the Voice of 
Christ, and a watchful Care is maintained not to follow 
the Voice of the Stranger ! 

Here Christ is felt to be our Shepherd, and, under his 
Leading, People are brought to a Stability; and, where 
he doth not lead forward, we are bound, in the Bonds 
of pure Love, to stand still and wait upon him. In the 
Love of Money, and in the Wisdom of this World, Business 
is proposed ; then the Urgency of Affairs pushes forward ; 
nor can the Mind in this State, discern the good and 
perfect Will of God concerning us. 

The Love of God is manifested in graciously calling us 
to come out of that which stands in Confusion: But, if 
we bow not in the Name of Jesus ; if we give not up those 
Prospects of Gain, which, in the Wisdom of this World, 
are open before us, but say, in our Hearts, I must needs 
go on, and, in going on, I hope to keep as near to the 
Purity of Truth as the Business before me will admit of; 
here the Mind remains entangled, and the Shining of the 
Light of Life into the Soul is obstructed. 

In an entire Subjection of our Wills the Lord graciously 
opens a Way for his People, where all their Wants are 
bounded by his Wisdom; and here we experience the 
Substance of what Moses the Prophet figured out in the 
Water of Separation, as a Purification from Sin. 

Esau is mentioned as a Child red all over, like a hairy 
Garment: In Esau is represented the natural Will of 
Man. In preparing the Water of Separation, a red Heifer, 
without Blemish, on which there had been no Yoke, was 
to be slain, and her Blood sprinkled by the Priest seven 
Times toward the Tabernacle of the Congregation; then 
her Skin, her Flesh, and all pertaining to her, were to 
be burnt without the Camp ; and of her Ashes the Water 
was prepared. Thus the crucifying the old Man, or 
natural Will, is represented ; and hence comes a Separation 
from that carnal Mind, which is Death, 

*' He who toucheth the dead Body of a Man, and 
purifieth not himself with the Water of Separation, he 

John Woolman's Journal 145 

defileth the Tabernacle of the Lord; he is unclean." 
Numb. xix. 13. 

If any, through the Love of Gain, go forth into Business, 
wherein they dwell as amongst the Tombs, and touch the 
Bodies of those who are dead; if these, through the 
infinite Love of God feel the Power of the Cross of Christ 
to crucify them to the World, and therein learn humbly 
to follow the divine Leader; — here is the Judgment of 
this World; — ^here the Prince of this World is cast out. 

The Water of Separation is felt; and, though we have 
been amongst the Slain, and, through the Desire of 
Gain, have touched the dead Body of a Man, yet, in the 
purifying Love of Christ, we are washed in the Water of 
Separation; are brought off from that Business, from 
that Gain, and from that Fellowship, which was not 
agreeable to his holy Will: And I have felt a renewed 
Confirmation, in the Time of this Voyage, that the Lord, 
in his infinite Love, is calling to his visited Children, so 
to give up all outward Possessions and Means of getting 
Treasures, that his holy Spirit may have free Course in 
their Hearts, and direct them in all their Proceedings. 

To feel the Substance pointed at in this Figure, Man 
must know Death, as to his own Will. 

" No Man can see God, and live." This was spoken 
by the Almighty to Moses the Prophet, and opened by 
our blessed Redeemer. 

As Death comes on our own Wills, and a new Life is 
formed in us, the Heart is purified and prepared to under- 
stand clearly. " Blessed are the Pure in Heart; for they 
shall see God." In Purity of Heart the Mind is divinely 
opened to behold the Nature of universal Righteousness, 
or the Righteousness of the Kingdom of God. " No Man 
hath seen the Father, save he that is of God; he hath 
seen the Father." 

The natural Mind is active about the Things of this 
Life; and, in this natural Activity, Business is proposed, 
and a Will in us to go forward in it. As long as this 
natural Will remains unsubjected, so long there remains 
an Obstruction against the Clearness of divine Light 
operating in us; but when we love God with all our Heart, 

1 46 John Woolman's Journal 

and with all our Strength, then in this Love, we love our 
Neighbours as ourselves; and a Tenderness of Heart is 
felt toward all People for whom Christ died, even such 
who, as to outward Circumstances, may be to us as the 
Jews were to the Samaritans. Who is my Neighbour? 
See this Question answered by our Saviour, Luke 
X. 30. 

In this Love we can say, that Jesus is the Lord; and 
the Reformation in our Souls is manifested in a full 
Reformation of our Lives, wherein all Things are new, and 
all Things are of God; 2 Cor. v. 18. in this the Desire of 
Gain is subjected. 

When Employment is honestly followed in the Light 
of Truth, and People become diligent in Business, " fervent 
in Spirit, serving the Lord; " Rom. xii. 11. here the Name 
is opened: "This is the Name by which he shall be 
xxiii. 6. ! how precious is this Name ! it is like Oint- 
ment poured out. The chaste Virgins are in Love with 
the Redeemer; and, for the promoting his peaceable 
Kingdom in the World, are content to endure Hardness, 
like good Soldiers; and are so separated in Spirit from 
the Desire of Riches, that in their Employments they 
become extensively careful to give none Offence, neither 
to Jews nor Heathen, nor the Church of Christ. 

On the thirty-first Day of the Month, and first of the 
Week, we had a Meeting in the Cabbin, with near all 
the Ship's Company; the Whole being near thirty. In 
this Meeting, the Lord, in Mercy, favoured us with the 
Extendings of his Love. 

The second Day of the sixth Month. Last Evening 
the Seamen found Bottom at about seventy Fathoms. 

This Morning, fair Wind, and pleasant. As I sat on 
Deck, my Heart was overcome with the Love of Christ, 
and melted into Contrition before him ; and, in this State, 
the Prospect of that Work, to which I have felt my Mind 
drawn when in my native Land, being in some Degree 
opened before me, I felt like a little Child : and my Cries 
were put up to my heavenly Father for Preservation, that, 
in a humble Dependence on him, my Soul might be 

John Woolman's Journal 147 

strengthened in his Love^ and kept inwardly waiting 
for his Counsel. 

This Afternoon we saw that Part of England called the 

Some Dunghill-fowls yet remained of those the Pas- 
sengers took for their Sea-store; I believe about fourteen 
perished in the Storms at Sea, by the Waves breaking 
over the Quarter-deck; and a considerable Number with 
Sickness, at different Times. I observed the Cocks crew, 
coming down the Delaware, and while we were near the 
Land; but afterward I think I did not hear one of them 
crow till we came near the Land in England, when they 
again crowed a few Times. 

In observing their dull Appearance at Sea, and the 
pining Sickness of some of them, I often remembered the 
Fountain of Goodness, who gave Being to all Creatures, 
and whose Love extends to that of caring for the Sparrows ; 
and believe, where the Love of God is verily perfected, 
and the true Spirit of Government watchfully attended 
to, a Tenderness toward all Creatures made subject to us 
will be experienced, and a Care felt in us, that we do not 
lessen that Sweetness of Life, in the animal Creation, which 
the great Creator intends for them in our Government. 

The fourth Day of the Month. About Noon a Pilot 
came off from Dover ; where my beloved Friend, Samuel 
Emlen, went on Shore, and thence to London ; but I felt 
easy in staying in the Ship. 

The seventh Day of the Month, and first of the Week. 
Clear Morning; we lay at Anchor for the Tide, and had 
a Parting-meeting with the Ship's Company; in which 
my Heart was enlarged in a fervent Concern for them, 
that they may come to experience Salvation through 
Christ. We had a Head- Wind up the Thames ; lay some- 
times at Anchor; saw many Ships passing, and some at 
Anchor near; and had large Opportunity of feeling the 
Spirit in which the poor bewildered Sailors too generally 
live. — That lamentable Degeneracy, which so much pre- 
vails on the People employed on the Seas, so affected my 
Heart, that I cannot easily convey the Feeling I have 
had to another. 


His attending the Yearly -meeting in London; and, after it, 
proceeding towards Yorkshire, visiting several Quarterly 
and other Meetings in the Counties of Hertford, Warwick, 
Oxford, Nottingham, York, and Westmoreland; and 
thence again into Yorkshire, and to the City of York; with 
some instructive Thoughts and Observations, and Letters 
on divers Subjects — His hearing of the Decease of William 
Hunt; and some Account of him — His Sickness at York; 
and End of his Pilgrimage there 

On the eighth Day of the sixth Month, 1772, we landed 
at London ; and I went straightway to the Yearly-meeting 
of Ministers and Elders, which had been gathered (I 
suppose) about half an Hour. 

In this Meeting my Mind was humbly contrite: In the 
Afternoon the Meeting of Business opened; which, by 
Adjournments, held near a Week. In these Meetings I 
often felt a living Concern for the Establishment of 
Friends in the pure Life of Truth; and my Heart was 
enlarged in the Meeting of Ministers, Meeting of Business, 
and in several Meetings of publick Worship; and I felt 
my Mind united in true Love to the faithful Labourers 
now gathered at this Yearly-meeting. 

On the fifteenth Day of the Month, I left London, and 
went to a Quarterly-meeting at Hertford. 

The first Day of the seventh Month. I have been at 
Quarterly-meetings at SJierrington, Nortfianipton, Banbury, 
and Shipston ; and had sundry Meetings between : My 
Mind hath been bowed under a Sense of divine Goodness 
manifested amongst us; my Heart hath been often en- 
larged in true Love, both amongst Ministers and Elders, 
and in publick Meetings; that through the Lord's Good- 
ness, I believe it hath been a fresh Visitation to many, 
in particular to the Youth. 

The seventeenth Day of the Month. Was this Day 


John Woolman's Journal 149 

at Birmingham : Have been at Meetings at Coventry, 
Warwick, in Oxfordshire, and sundry other Places; have 
felt the humbling Hand of the Lord upon me; and 
through his tender Mercies find Peace in the Labours I 
have gone through. 

The twenty-sixth Day of the Month. I have continued 
travelling northward, visiting Meetings: Was this Day 
at Nottingham ; which, in the Forenoon especially, was, 
through divine Love, a Heart- tendering Season: Next 
Day had a Meeting in a Friend's House with Friends 
Children and some Friends; this, through the strengthen- 
ing Arm of the Lord, was a Time to be thankfully remem- 

The second Day of the eighth Month, and first of the 
Week. Was this Day at Sheffield, a large inland Town: 
Have been at sundry Meetings last Week; and feel 
inward Thankfulness for that divine Support, which hath 
been graciously extended to me. 

The ninth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, 
was at Rushworth : Have lately passed through some 
painful Labour; but have been comforted, under a Sense 
of that divine Visitation, which I feel extended toward 
many young People. 

The sixteenth Day of the Month, and first of the Week, 
I was at Settle : It hath of late been a Time of inward 
Poverty; under which my Mind hath been preserved in 
a watchful tender State, feeling for the Mind of the holy 
Leader, and I find Peace in the Labours I have passed 
V I have felt great Distress of Mind, since I came on this 
Island, on Account of the Members of our Society being 
mixed with the World in various Sorts of Business and 
Traffick, carried on in impure Channels. Great is the 
Trade to Africa for Slaves ! and, in loading these Ships, 
abundance of People are employed in the Factories; 
amongst whom are many of our Society. Friends, in 
early Times, refused, on a religious Principle, to make, 
or trade in. Superfluities; of which we have many large 
Testimonies on Record; but, for Want of Faithfulness, 
some gave way; even some, whose Examples were of 

150 John Woolman's Journal 

Note in our Society; and from thence others took more 
Liberty. Members of our Society worked in Superfluities, 
and bought and sold them; and thus Dimness of Sight 
came over many: At length, Friends got into the Use of 
some Superfluities in Dress, and in the Furniture of their 
Houses; and this hath spread from less to more, till 
Superfluity of some Kinds is common amongst us. 

In this declining State, many look at the Example one 
of another, and too much neglect the pure Feeling of 
Truth. Of late Years, a deep Exercise hath attended 
my Mind, that Friends may dig deep, may carefully cast 
forth the loose Matter, and get down to the Rock, the sure 
Foundation, and there hearken to that divine Voice which 
gives a clear and certain Sound; and I have felt in that 
which doth not deceive, that if Friends, who have known 
the Truth, keep in that Tenderness of Heart, where all 
Views of outward Gain are given up, and their Trust is 
only on the Lord, he will graciously lead some to be 
Patterns of deep Self-denial in Things relating to Trade 
and Handicraft-labour; and that some, who have plenty 
of the Treasures of this World, will example in a plain 
frugal Life, and pay Wages, to such as they may hire, 
more liberally than is now customary in some Places. ^ 

The twenty-third Day of the Month. Was this Day at 
Preston-Patrick, and had a comfortable Meeting. I have, 
several Times, been entertained at the Houses of Friends, 
who had sundry Things about them which had the 
Appearance of outward Greatness; and, as I have kept 
inward. Way hath opened for Conversation with such in 
private, in which Divine Goodness hath favoured us 
together with heart-tendering Times. 

I rested a few Days, in Body and Mind, with our Friend 
Jane Crosfield; who was once in America : Was, on the 
sixth Day of the Week, at Kendal in Westmoreland ; and 
at Greyrig Meeting the thirtieth Day of the Month, and 
first of the Week. 

I have known Poverty of late, and been graciously 
supported to keep in the Patience; and am thankful, 
under a Sense of the Goodness of the Lord toward those 
that are of a contrite Spirit. 

John Woolman's Journal 151 

The sixth Day of the ninth Month, and first of the 
Week. Was this Day at Counterside, a large Meeting- 
house, and very full; and, through the Opening of pure 
Love, it was a strengthening Time to me, and (I believe) 
to many more. 

The thirteenth Day of the Month. Was this Day at 
Richmond, a small Meeting; but, the Town's People 
coming in, the House was crowded: It was a Time of 
heavy Labour; and (I believe) was a profitable Meeting. 

At this Place I heard that my Kinsman William Hunt, 
from North-Carolina, who was on a religious Visit to 
Friends in England, departed this Life on the ninth Day 
of the ninth Month, Instant, of the Small-pox, at New- 
castle. — He appeared in the Ministry when a Youth; and 
his Labours therein were of good Savour. He travelled 
much in that Work in America. I once heard him say, 
in publick Testimony, that his Concern was (in that 
Visit) to be devoted to the Service of Christ so fully, that 
he might not spend one Minute in pleasing himself: Which 
Words, joined with his Example, were a Means of stirring 
up the pure Mind in me. 

On this Visit to England I have felt some Instructions 
sealed on my Mind, which I am concerned to leave in 
Writing, for the Use of such as are called to the Station 
of a Minister of Christ. 

Christ being the Prince of Peace, and we being no more 
than Ministers, I find it necessary for us, not only to feel 
a Concern in our first going forth, but to experience the 
renewing thereof, in the Appointment of Meetings. 

I felt a Concern, in America, to prepare for this Voyage; 
and, being, through the Mercy of God, brought safe here, 
my Heart was like a Vessel that wanted Vent; and for 
several Weeks, at first, when my Mouth was opened in 
Meetings, it often felt like the raising of a Gate in a 
Water-course, where a Weight of Water lay upon it; and 
in these Labours there appeared a fresh Visitation to 
many, especially the Youth; but sometimes, after this, 
I felt empty and poor, and yet felt a Necessity to appoint 

In this State I was exercised to abide in the pure Life 

152 John Woolman's Journal 

of Truth, and in all my Labours to watch diligently 
against the Motions of Self in my own Mind. 

I have frequently felt a Necessity to stand up, when 
the Spring of the Ministry was low; and to speak from 
the Necessity, in that which subjecteth the Will of the 
Creature; and herein I was united with the suffering 
Seed, and found inward Sweetness with these mortifying 

As I have been preserved in a watchful Attention to 
the divine Leader, under these Dispensations, Enlarge- 
ment at Times hath followed, and the Power of Truth 
hath risen higher, in some Meetings, than I ever knew 
it before through me. 

Thus I have been more and more instructed, as to the 
Necessity of depending, not upon a Concern which I felt 
in America, to come on a Visit to England, but upon the 
fresh Instructions of Christ, the Prince of Peace, from 
Day to Day. 

Now, of late, I felt a Stop in the Appointment of 
Meetings, not wholly, but in Part; and I do not feel 
Liberty to appoint them so quick one after another as 
I have heretofore. 

The Work of the Ministry being a Work of divine 
Love, I feel that the Openings thereof are to be waited 
for, in all our Appointments. 

0! how deep is divine Wisdom! Christ puts forth 
his Ministers, and goeth before them : And ! how great 
is the Danger of departing from the pure Feeling of that 
which leadeth safely ! 

Christ knoweth the State of the People; and, in the 
pure Feeling of the Gospel-Ministry, their States are 
opened to his Servants. 

Christ knoweth when the Fruit-bearing Branches 
themselves have Need of purging. 

0! that these Lessons may be remembered by me! 
and that all who appoint Meetings may proceed in the 
pure Feeling of Duty. 

I have sometimes felt a Necessity to stand up; but 
that Spirit which is of the World hath so much prevailed 
in many, and the pure Life of Truth been so pressed 

John Woolman's Journal 153 

down, that I have gone forward, not as one travelling 
in a Road cast up and well prepared, but as a Man walking 
through a Miry place, in which are Stones here and there, 
safe to step on, but so situated, that, one Step being 
taken. Time is necessary to see where to step next. 

Now I find that, in the pure Obedience, the Mind learns 
Contentment, in appearing weak and foolish to that 
Wisdom which is of the World; and in these lowly 
Labours, they who stand in a low Place, rightly exercised 
under the Cross, will find Nourishment. 

The Gift is pure; and, while the Eye is single in attend- 
ing thereto, the Understanding is preserved clear: Self 
is kept out. We rejoice in filling up that which remains 
of the Afflictions of Christ, for his Body's Sake, which is 
the Church. 

The natural Man loveth Eloquence, and many love to 
hear eloquent Orations; and, if there is not a careful 
Attention to the Gift, Men who have once laboured in the 
pure Gospel-ministry, growing weary of Suffering, and 
ashamed of appearing weak, may kindle a Fire, compass 
themselves about with Sparks, and walk in the Light; 
not of Christ who is under Suffering; but of that Fire 
which they, going from the Gift, have kindled; and that 
in Hearers, which is gone from the meek suffering State, 
into the worldly Wisdom, may be warmed with this Fire, 
and speak highly of these Labours. That which is of 
God gathers to God; and that which is of the World 
is owned by the World. 

In this Journey a Labour hath attended my Mind, that 
the Ministers amongst us may be preserved in the meek 
feeling Life of Truth, where we may have no Desire but 
to follow Christ and be with him; that, when he is under 
Suffering, we may suffer with him, and never desire to 
rise up in Dominion, but as he, by the Virtue of his own 
Spirit, may raise us. 

A few Days after writing these Considerations, our dear 
Friend, in the Course of his religious Visits, came to the 
City of York, and attended most of the Sittings of the 
Quarterly-meeting there; but, before it was over, was 

I 54 John Woolman's Journal 

taken ill of the Small-pox. Our Friend, Thomas Priest- 
man, and others who attended him, preserved the follow- 
ing Minutes of his Expressions in the Time of his Sickness 
and of his Decease. 

First-day, the twenty-seventh of the ninth Month, 1772. 
His Disorder appeared to be the Small-pox. 

Second-day. He said he felt the Disorder to affect his 
Head, so that he could think little, and but as a 

Third-day he uttered the following Prayer. — Lord 
my God ! the amazing Horrors of Darkness were gathered 
around me and covered me all over, and I saw no Way to 
go forth; I felt the Depth and Extent of the Misery of 
my Fellow-creatures separated from the divine Harmony, 
and it was heavier than I could bear, and I was crushed 
down under it; I lifted up my Hand, I stretched out my 
Arm, but there was none to help me; I looked round 
about and was amazed; in the Depths of Misery, O Lord ! 
I .remembered that thou art omnipotent, that I had 
called thee Father, and I felt that I loved thee, and I 
was made quiet in thy Will, and I waited for Deliver- 
ance from thee; thou hadst Pity upon me when no Man 
could help me : I saw that Meekness under Suffering was 
shewed to us in the most affecting Example of thy Son, 
and thou taughtest me to follow him, and I said, " Thy 
Will, Father! be done." 

Fourth-day-morning, being asked how he felt himself, 
he meekly answered, I do not know that I have slept 
this Night, I feel the Disorder making its Progress, but 
my Mind is mercifully preserved in Stillness and Peace: 
Sometime after he said he was sensible the Pains of Death 
must be hard to bear; but, if he escaped them now, he 
must sometime pass through them, and he did not know 
that he could be better prepared, but had no Will in it. 
He said he had settled his outward Affairs to his Mind, 
had taken Leave of his Wife and Family as never to 
return, leaving them to the divine Protection; adding, 
and though I feel them near to me at this Time, yet I 
freely give them up, having a Hope that they will be 
provided for. And a little after said. This Trial is made 

John Woolman's Journal 155 

easier than I could have thought, my Will being wholly 
taken away; for if I were anxious for the Event, it would 
have been harder; but I am not, and my Mind enjoys 
a perfect Calm. 

In the Night a young Woman having given him some- 
thing to drink, he said. My Child, thou seemest very kind 
to me, a poor Creature, the Lord will reward thee for it. 
A While after he cried out with great Earnestness of 
Spirit, my Father ! my Father ! and soon after he said, 

my Father! my Father! how comfortable art thou 
to my Soul in this trying Season! Being asked if he 
could take a little Nourishment; after some Pause he 
replied, my Child, I cannot tell what to say to it; I seem 
nearly arrived where my Soul shall have Rest from all 
its Troubles. After giving in something to be inserted 
in his Journal, he said, I believe the Lord will now excuse 
me from Exercises of this Kind; and I see no Work but 
one, which is to be the last wrought by me in this World ; 
the Messenger will come that will release me from all 
these Troubles ; but it must be in the Lord's Time, which 

1 am waiting for. He said he had laboured to do what- 
ever was required, according to the Ability received, in 
the Remembrance of which he had Peace; and, though 
the Disorder was strong at Times, and would like a 
Whirlwind come over his Mind, yet it had hitherto been 
kept steady, and centered in everlasting Love; adding, 
and if that be mercifully continued, I ask nor desire no 
more. Another Time he said, he had long had a view 
of visiting this Nation, and, sometime before he came, had 
a Dream, in which he saw himself in the northern Parts 
of it, and that the Spring of the Gospel was opened in 
him much as in the Beginning of Friends, such as George 
Fox and William Dewsberry, and he saw the different 
States of the People, as clear as he had ever seen Flowers 
in a Garden; but in his going along he was suddenly 
stopt, though he could not see for what End; but, look- 
ing towards Home, fell into a Flood of Tears which waked 

At another Time he said. My Draught seemed strongest 
towards the North, and I mentioned, in my own Monthly- 

M 402 

156 John Woolman*s Journal 

meeting, that attending the Quarterly-meeting at Yorky 
and being there, looked like Home to me. 

Fifth-day-night, having repeatedly consented to take 
Medicine with a View to settle his Stomach, but without 
Effect, the Friend, then waiting on him, said, through 
Distress, What shall I do now? He answered with great 
Composure, Rejoice evermore, and in every Thing give 
Thanks; but added a little after, this is sometimes hard 
to come at. 

Sixth-day-morning, he broke forth early in Supplica- 
tion on this wise : Lord ! it was thy Power that enabled 
me to forsake Sin in my Youth, and I have felt thy 
Bruises for Disobedience; but, as I bowed under them, 
thou didst heal me, continuing a Father and a Friend: 
I feel thy Power now, and I beg that, in the approaching 
trying Moment, thou wilt keep my Heart stedfast unto 
thee. Upon his giving Directions to a Friend concern- 
ing some little Things, she said, I will take Care, but hope 
thou wilt live to order them thyself. He replied. My 
Hope is in Christ; and, though I may seem a little better, 
a Change in the Disorder may soon happen, and my little 
Strength be dissolved; and, if it so happen, I shall be 
gathered to my everlasting Rest. On her saying she did 
not doubt that, but could not help mourning to see so 
many faithful Servants removed at so low a Time, he said. 
All Good Cometh from the Lord, whose Power is the same, 
and can work as he sees best. The same Day he had 
given Directions about wrapping his Corpse, perceiving 
a Friend to weep, he said, I would rather thou wouldst 
guard against weeping for me, my Sister; I sorrow not, 
though I have had some painful Conflicts; but now they 
seem over, and Matters well settled, and I look at the 
Face of my dear Redeemer; for sweet is his Voice, and 
his Countenance is comely. 

First-day, fourth of the tenth Month, being very weak, 
and in general difficult to be understood, he uttered a 
few Words in Commemoration of the Lord's Goodness, 
and added, How tenderly have I been waited on in this 
Time of Affliction ! in which I may say, in Job's Words, 
Tedious Days and wearisome Nights are appointed unto 

John Woolman's Journal 157 

me: And how many are spending their Time and Money 
in Vanity and Superfluities, while thousands and tens of 
thousands want the Necessaries of Life, who might be 
relieved by them, and their Distresses, at such a Time 
as this, in some degree softened, by the administering 
suitable Things! 

Second-day-morning, the Apothecary, who appeared 
very anxious to assist him, being present, he queried 
about the Probability of such a Load of Matter being 
thrown off his weak Body; and, the Apothecary making 
some Remarks implying he thought it might, he spoke 
with an audible Voice on this wise: — My Dependance is 
on the Lord Jesus, who, I trust, will forgive my Sins, 
which is all I hope for; and, if it be his Will to raise up 
this Body again, I am content; and, if to die, I am 
resigned; and, if thou canst not be easy without trying 
to assist Nature, I submit. After which his Throat was 
so much affected, that it was very difficult for him to 
speak so as to be understood; and he frequently wrote 
when he wanted any Thing. About the second Hour, 
on Fourth-day Morning, he asked for Pen and Ink, and, 
at several Times, with much Difficulty, wrote thus: I 
believe my being here is in the Wisdom of Christ; I 
know not as to Life or Death. 

About a Quarter before six, the same Morning, he 
seemed to fall into an easy Sleep, which continued about 
Half an Hour; when, seeming to awake, he breathed a 
few Times with more Difficulty, and expired, without 
Sigh, Groan, or Struggle! 

End of the Journal 





My Mind hath often been affected with Sorrow, on 
Account of the prevaiUng of that Spirit, which leads 
from an humble waiting on the inward Teaching of 
Christ, to pursue Ways of Living, attended with unneces- 
sary Labour, and which draws forth the Minds of many 
People to seek after outward Power, and to strive for 
Riches, which frequently introduce Oppression, and bring 
forth Wars and grievous Calamities. 

It is with Reverence that I acknowledge the Mercies 
of our Heavenly Father, who, in Infinite Love, did visit 
me in my Youth, and wrought a Belief in me, that 
through true Obedience a State of inward Purity may be 
known in this Life, in which we may love Mankind in 
the same Love with which our Redeemer loveth us, and 
therein learn Resignation to endure Hardships, for the 
real Good of others. 

While the Eye is single, the whole Body is full of Light, 
Mat. vi. 22. but for want of this, selfish Desires, and an 
imaginary Superiority, darken the Mind; hence Injustice 
frequently proceeds; and where this is the Case, to 
convince the Judgment, is the most effectual Remedy. 

Where violent Measures are pursued in opposing In- 
justice, the Passions, and Resentments, of the Injured, 
frequently operate in the Prosecution of their Designs; 
and after Conflicts productive of very great Calamities, 
the Minds of contending Parties often remain as little 
acquainted with the pure Principle of Divine Love, as 
they were before; but where People walk in that pure 
Light in which all their Works are wrought in God, John 
iii. 21. and under Oppression persevere in the meek 
Spirit, and abide firm in the Cause of Truth, without 
actively complying with oppressive Demands, through 
those the Lord hath often manifested his Power, in open- 


1 62 John Woolman's Writings 

ing the Understandings of others, to the promoting 
Righteousness in the Earth. 

A Time, I beHeve, is coming, wherein this Divine Work 
will so spread and prevail, that Nation shall not Ivt up 
Sword against Nation, nor learn War any more, Isaiah ii. 4. 
And as we, through the tender Mercies of God, do feel 
that this precious Work is begun, I am concerned to 
encourage my Brethren and Sisters in a Holy Care and 
Diligence, that each of us may so live, under the sanctify- 
ing Power of Truth, as to be redeemed from all unneces- 
sary Cares ; that our Eye being single to him, no Customs, 
however prevalent, which are contrary to the Wisdom 
from above, may hinder us from faithfully following his 
Holy Leadings, in whatsoever he may graciously appoint 
for us. 




To have our Trust settled in the Lord, and not to seek 
after^ nor desire outward Treasures, any further than 
his Holy Spirit leads us therein, is a happy State, as saith 
the Prophet, Blessed is the Man that trusteth in the Lord, 
and whose Hope the Lord is. 

Pure Wisdom leads People into Lowliness of Mind, in 
which they learn Resignation to the Divine Will, and 
Contentment in suffering for his Cause, when they cannot 
keep a clear Conscience without suffering. 

In this pure Wisdom the Mind is attentive to the Root, 
and original Spring of Motions and Desires; and as we 
know the Lord to be our Refuge, and find no Safety but in 
humbly walking before him, we feel an Holy Engage- 
ment, that every Desire which leads therefrom may be 
brought to Judgment. 

While we proceed in this precious Way, and find ardent 
Longings for a full Deliverance from every thing which 
defiles, all Prospects of Gain, that are not consistent with 
the Wisdom from above, are considered as Snares, and an 
inward Concern is felt, that we may live under the Cross, 
and faithfully attend to that Holy Spirit, which is sufficient 
to preserve out of them. 

When I have considered that Saying of Christ, Mat. 
vi. 19, Lay not up for yourselves Treasures upon Earth, 
his Omnipotence hath often occurred to my Mind. 

While we believe that he is every where present with 
his People, and that perfect Goodness, Wisdom and 


164 John Woolman's Writings 

Power are united in him, how comfortable is the Con- 

Our Wants may be great, but his Power is greater. 
We may be oppressed and despised, but he is able to turn 
our patient Sufferings into Proiit- to. ourselves, and to the 
Advancement of his Work on Earth. His People, who 
feel the Power of his Cross, to crucify all that is selfish 
in them, who are engaged in outward Concerns, from a 
Convincement that it is their Duty, and resign themselves, 
and their Treasures, to him ; these feel that it is dangerous 
to give way to that in us, which craves Riches and Great- 
ness in this World. 

As the Heart truly contrite, earnestly desires to know 
Christ, and the Fellowship of his Sufferings, Phil. iii. 10. 
so far as the Lord for gracious Ends may lead into them; 
as such feel that it is their Interest to put their Trust in 
God, and to seek no Gain but that which he, by his Holy 
Spirit, leads into; so, on the contrary, they who do not 
reverently wait for this Divine Teacher, and are not 
humbly concerned, according to their Measure, to fill up 
that which is behind of the Afflictions of Christ, Col. i. 24. 
in patiently suffering for the promoting Righteousness in 
the Earth; but have an Eye toward the Power of Men, 
and the outward Advantage of Wealth, these are often 
attentive to those Employments which appear profitable, 
even though the Gains arise from such Trade and Business 
which proceeds from the Workings of that Spirit, which 
is estranged from the self-denying Life of an humble 
contrite Christian. 

While I write on this Subject, I feel my Mind tenderly 
affected toward those honestly disposed People, who have 
been brought up in Employments attended with those 

To such I may say, in the feeling of our Heavenly 
Father's Love, and number myself with you, that our 
Eyes may be single to the Lord! May we reverently 
wait on him for Strength, to lay aside all unnecessary 
Expence of every Kind, and learn Contentment, in a 
plain simple Life. 

May we, in Lowliness, submit to the Leadings of his 

John Woolman's Writings 165 

Spirit, and enter upon any outward Employ which he 
graciously points out to us, and then whatever Difficulties 
arise, in Consequence of our Faithfulness, I trust they will 
work for our Good. 

Small Treasure to a resigned Mind is sufficient. How 
happy is it to be content with a little, to live in Humility, 
and feel that in us, which breathes out this Language, 
Abba! Father. 

If that, called the Wisdom of this World, had no 
Resemblance of true Wisdom, the Name of Wisdom, I 
suppose, had not been given to it. 

As wasting outward Substance, to gratify vain Desires, 
on one hand; so Slothfulness and Neglect, on the other, 
do often involve Men and their Families in Trouble, and 
reduce them to Want and Distress; to shun both these 
opposite Vices, is good in itself, and hath a Resemblance 
of Wisdom; but while People thus provident, have it 
principally in View to get Riches, and Power, and the 
Friendship of this World, and do not humbly wait for 
the Spirit of Truth to lead them into Purity; these, 
through an anxious Care to obtain the End desired, reach 
forth for Gain in worldly Wisdom, and, in regard to their 
inward State, fall into divers Temptations and Snares. 
•<And though such may think of applying Wealth to good 
Purposes, and to use their Power to prevent Oppression, 
yet Wealth and Power is often applied otherwise; nor 
can we depart from the Leadings of our Holy Shepherd, 
without going into Confusion. 

Great Wealth is frequently attended with Power, which 
nothing but Divine Love can qualify the Mind to use 
rightly; and as to the Humility, and Uprightness of our 
Children after us, how great is the Uncertainty! If, in 
acquiring Wealth, we take hold on the Wisdom which 
is from beneath, and depart from the Leadings of Truth, 
and Example our Children herein, we have great Cause 
to apprehend, that Wealth may be a Snare to them; 
and prove an Injury to others, over whom their Wealth 
may give them Power. 

To be redeemed from that Wisdom which is from 
beneath, and walk in the Light of the Lord, is a precious 


1 66 John Woolman's Writings 

Situation; thus his People are brought to put their Trust 
in him; and in this humble Confidence in his Wisdom, 
Goodness and Power, the Righteous find a Refuge in 
Adversities, superior to the greatest outward Helps, and 
a Comfort more certain than any worldly Advantages can 


Having from my Childhood been used to Bodily Labour 
for a Livings I may express my Experience therein. 

Right Exercise affords an innocent Pleasure in the 
Time of it, and prepares us to enjoy the Sweetness of 
Rest; but from the Extremes each Way, arise Incon- 

Moderate Exercise opens the Pores, gives the Blood 
a lively Circulation, and the better enables us to judge 
rightly respecting that Portion of Labour which is the 
true Medium. 

The Fowls of the Air sow not, nor gather into Barns, yet 
our Heavenly Father feedeth them. Mat. vi. 26. nor do I 
believe that Infinite Goodness and Power would have 
allotted Labour to us, had he not seen that Labour was 
proper for us in this Life. 

The original Design, and true Medium of Labour, is 
a Subject that, to me, appears worthy of our serious 

Idle Men are often a Burden to themselves, neglect 
the Duty they owe to their Families, and become burden- 
some to others also. 

As outward Labour, directed by the Wisdom from 
above, tends to our Health, and adds to our Happiness 
in this Life; so, on the contrary, entering upon it in a 
selfish Spirit, and pursuing it too long, or too hard, hath 
a contrary Effect. 

I have observed, that too much Labour not only makes 
the Understanding dull, but so intrudes upon the Harmony 
of the Body, that after ceasing from our Toil, we have 
another to pass through, before we can be so composed 
as to enjoy the Sweetness of Rest. 

From too much Labour in the Heat, frequently proceeds 
immoderate Sweats, which do often, I believe, open the 
Way for Disorders, and impair our Constitutions. 

When we go beyond the true Medium, and feel Weari- 


i68 John Woolman's Writings 

ness approaching^ but think Business may suffer it we 
cease, at such a Time spirituous Liquors are frequently- 
taken, with a View to support Nature under these 

I have found that too much Labour in the Summer 
heats the Blood, that taking strong Drink to support the 
Body under such Labour, increaseth that Heat, and 
though a Person may be so far temperate as not to 
manifest the least Disorder, yet the Mind, in such a 
Circumstance, doth not retain that Calmness and Serenity 
which we should endeavour to live in. 

Thus toiling in the Heat, and drinking strong Liquor, 
makes Men more resolute, and less considerate, and tends. 
very much to disqualify from successfully following him 
who is meek and low of Heart. 

As laying out Business, more than is consistent with 
pure Wisdom, is an Evil, so this Evil frequently leads 
into more. Too much Business leads to Hurry. In the 
Hurry and Toil too much strong Drink is often used, 
and hereby many proceed to Noise and Wantonness, and 
some, though more considerate, do often suffer Loss, as to 
a true Composedness of Mind. 

I feel sincere Desires in my Heart that no Rent, nor 
Interest, might be laid so high as to be a Snare to Tenants. 
That no Desires of Gain may draw any too far in Busi- 
ness. That no Cares to support Customs, which have not 
their Foundation in pure Wisdom, may have Place in our 
Minds, but that we may build on the sure Foundation, 
and feel our Holy Shepherd to lead us, who alone is able 
to preserve us, and bring forth from every Thing which 

Having several Times, in my Travels, had Opportunity 
to observe the Labour and Manner of Life of great 
Numbers of Slaves, it appears to me that the true Medium 
is lamentably neglected by many, who assign them their 
Portion of Labour. 

Without saying much at this Time, concerning buying 
and selling Men for Term of Life, who have as just a 
Right to Liberty as we have; nor about the great Miseries, 
and Effusion of Blood, consequent to promoting the Slave- 

John Woolman's Writings 169 

trade, and to speak as favourably as may be, with regard 
to continuing those in Bondage who are amongst us, we 
cannot say there is no Partiality in it; for whatever 
Tenderness may be manifested by Individuals in their 
Life-time towards them, yet for People to be transmitted 
from a Man to his Posterity, in the helpless Condition 
of Slaves, appears inconsistent with the Nature of the 
Gospel Spirit. From such Proceedings it often follows, 
that Persons in the Decline of Life, are deprived of Monies 
equitably due to them, and committed to the Care, and 
subjected to the absolute Power of young unexperienced 
Men, who know but little about the Weakness of old Age, 
nor understand the Language of declining Life. 

Where Parents give their Estates to their Children, and 
then depend on them for a Maintainance, they sometimes 
meet with great Inconveniences; but if the Power of 
Possession, thus obtained, doth often reverse the Obliga- 
tions of Gratitude and filial Duty, and makes manifest, 
that Youth are often ignorant of the Language of old 
Age, how hard is the Case of ancient Negroes, who, 
deprived of the Wages equitably due to them, are left to 
young People, who have been used to look upon them 
as their Inferiors. 

For Men to behold the Fruits of their Labour with- 
held from them, and possessed by others, and in old Age 
find themselves destitute of those comfortable Accom- 
modations, and that tender Regard which their Time of 
Life requires: 

When they feel Pains and Stiffness in their Joints and 
Limbs, Weakness of Appetite, and that a little Labour 
is wearisome, and still behold themselves in the neglected 
uncomfortable Condition of a Slave, and oftentimes to a 
young unsympathising Man: 

For Men to be thus treated from one Generation to 
another, who, besides their own Distresses, think on the 
Slavery entailed on their Posterity, and are grieved: 
What disagreeable Thoughts must they have of the 
professed Followers of Jesus ! And how must their Groans 
ascend to that Almighty Being, who will be a Refuge for 
the Oppressed, Psalm ix. 9. 


Su-ffer the little Children to come unto me, and forbid them not, 
for of such is the Kingdom of God, Mark x. 14 

To encourage Children to do Things with a View to get 
Praise of Men, to me appears an Obstruction to their 
being inwardly acquainted with the Spirit of Truth. For 
it is the Work of the Holy Spirit to direct the Mind of 
God, that in all our Proceedings we may have a single 
Eye to him. To give Alms in secret, to fast in secret, 
and labour to keep clear of that Disposition reproved 
by our Saviour, All their Works which they do is for to be 
seen of Men, Mat. xxiii. 5. 

That Divine Light which enlightens all Men, I believe, 
does often shine in the Minds of Children very early, and 
to humbly wait for Wisdom, that our Conduct toward 
them may tend to forward their Acquaintance with it, 
and strengthen them in Obedience thereto, appears to 
me to be a Duty on all of us. 

By cherishing the Spirit of Pride, and the Love of 
Praise in them, I believe they may sometimes improve 
faster in Learning, than otherwise they would; but to 
take Measures to forward Children in Learning, which 
naturally tend to divert their Minds from true Humility, 
appears to me to savour of the Wisdom of this World. 

If Tutors are not acquainted with Sanctification of 
Spirit, nor experienced in an humble waiting for the 
Leadings of Truth, but follow the Maxims of the Wisdom 
of this World, such Children who are under their Tuition, 
appear to me to be in Danger of imbibing Thoughts, and 
Apprehensions, reverse to that Meekness, and Lowliness 
of Heart, which is necessary for all the true Followers of 

Children at an Age fit for Schools, are in a Time of Life 
which requires the patient Attention of pious People, 


John Woolman's Writings 171 

and if we commit them to the Tuition of such, whose 
Minds we believe are not rightly prepared to train them 
up in the Nurture and Admonition of the Lord, we are in 
Danger of not acting the Part of faithful Parents toward 
them; for our Heavenly Father doth not require us to 
do Evil, that Good may come of it; and it is needful that 
we deeply examine ourselves, lest we get entangled in the 
Wisdom of this World, and, through wrong Apprehensions, 
take such Methods in Education, as may prove a great 
Injury to the Minds of our Children. 

It is a lovely Sight to behold innocent Children; and 
when they are sent to such Schools where their tender 
Minds are in imminent Danger of being led astray by 
Tutors, who do not live a self-denying Life, or by the 
Conversation of such Children who do not live in Inno- 
cence, it is a Case much to be lamented. 

While a pious Tutor hath the Charge of no more 
Children than he can take due Care of, and keeps his 
Authority in the Truth, the good Spirit in which he leads 
and governs, works on the Minds of such who are not 
hardened, and his Labours not only tend to bring them 
forward in outward Learning, but to open their Under- 
standings with respect to the true Christian Life; but 
where a Person hath Charge of too many, and his Thoughts 
and Time are so much employed in the outward Affairs of 
his School, that he does not so weightily attend to the 
Spirit and Conduct of each Individual, as to be enabled 
to administer rightly to all in due Season; through such 
Omission he not only suffers, as to the State of his own 
Mind, but the Minds of the Children are in Danger of 
suffering also. 

To watch the Spirit of Children, to nurture them in 
Gospel Love, and labour to help them against that which 
would mar the Beauty of their Minds, is a Debt we owe 
them; and a faithful Performance of our Duty, not only 
tends to their lasting Benefit, and our own Peace, but also 
to render their Company agreeable to us. 

Instruction, thus administered, reaches the pure Witness 
in the Minds of such Children who are not hardened, and 
begets Love in them toward those who thus lead them on; 

N 402 

172 John Woolman's Writings 

but where too great a Number are committed to a Tutor, 
and he, through much Cumber, omits a careful Attention 
to the Minds of Children, there is Danger of Disorders 
gradually increasing amongst them, till the Effects thereof 
appear in their Conduct, too strong to be easily remedied. 

A Care hath lived on my Mind, that more Time might 
be employed by Parents at Home, and by Tutors at 
School, in weightily attending to the Spirit and Inclina- 
tions of Children, and that we may so lead, instruct, and 
govern them, in this tender Part of Life, that nothing 
may be omitted in our Power, to help them on their Way 
to become the Children of our Father, who is in Heaven. 

Meditating on the Situation of Schools in our Provinces, 
my Mind hath, at Times, been affected with Sorrow, and 
under these Exercises it hath appeared to me, that if 
those who have large Estates, were faithful Stewards, and 
laid no Rent, nor Interest, nor other Demands, higher 
than is consistent with universal Love; and those in 
lower Circumstances would, under a moderate Employ, 
shun unnecessary Expence, even to the smallest Article; 
and all unite in humbly seeking to the Lord, he would 
graciously instruct us, and strengthen us, to relieve the 
Youth from various Snares, in which many of them are 


As our Understandings are opened by the pure Lights 
we experience that^ through an inward approaching to 
God, the Mind is strengthened in Obedience; and that 
by gratifying those Desires which are not of his begetting, 
those Approaches to him are obstructed, and the deceivable 
Spirit gains Strength. 

These Truths, being as it were engraven upon our 
Hearts, and our everlasting Interest in Christ evidently 
concerned herein, we become fervently engaged, that 
nothing may be nourished which tends to feed Pride or 
Self-love in us. Thus in pure Obedience, we are not only 
instructed in our Duty to God, but also in the Affairs 
which necessarily relate to this Life, and the Spirit of 
Truth which guides into all Truth, leavens the Mind with 
a pious Co"cern, that whatsoever we do in Word or Deed, 
may be done in his Name, Col. iii. 17. 

Hence such Buildings, Furniture, Food, and Raiment, 
as best answer our Necessities, and are the least likely to 
feed that selfish Spirit which is our Enemy, are the most 
acceptable to us. 

In this State the Mind is tender, and inwardly watch- 
ful, that the Love of Gain draw us not into any Business, 
which may weaken our Love to our Heavenly Father, 
or bring unnecessary Trouble to any of his Creatures. 

Thus the Way gradually opens to cease from that 
Spirit which craves Riches and Things fetched far, which 
so mixeth with the Customs of this World, and so intrudes 
upon the true Harmony of Life, that the right Medium 
of Labour is very much departed from. And as the 
Minds of People are settled in a steady Concern, not to 
hold nor possess any Thing but what may be held con- 
sistent with the Wisdom from above, they consider what 


174 John Woolman's Writings 

they possess as the Gift of God, and are inwardly exercised, 
that in all Parts of their Conduct they may act agreeable 
to the Nature of the peaceable Government of Christ. 

A little supports such a Life; and in a State truly 
resigned to the Lord, the Eye is single, to see what out- 
ward Employ he leads into, as a Means of our Subsistence, 
and a lively Care is maintained to hold to that without 
launching further. 

There is a Harmony in the several Parts of this Divine 
Work in the Hearts of People; he who leads them to 
cease from those gainful Employments, carried on in that 
Wisdom which is from beneath, delivers also from the 
Desire after worldly Greatness, and reconciles the Mind 
to a Life so plain, that a little doth suffice. 

Here the real Comforts of Life are not lessened. Moder- 
ate Exercise, in the Way of true Wisdom, is pleasant 
both to Mind and Body. 

Food and Raiment sufficient, though in the greatest 
Simplicity, is accepted with Content and Gratitude. 

The mutual Love, subsisting between the faithful 
Followers of Christ, is more pure than that Friendship 
which is not seasoned with Humility, how specious soever 
the Appearance. 

Where People depart from pure Wisdom in one Case, 
it is often an Introduction to depart from it in many 
more; and thus a Spirit which seeks for outward Great- 
ness, and leads into worldly Wisdom to attain it, and 
support it, gets Possession of the Mind. 

In beholding the customary Departure from the true 
Medium of Labour, and that unnecessary Toil which 
many go through, in supporting outward Greatness, and 
procuring Delicacies. 

In beholding how the true Calmness of Life is changed 
into Hurry, and that many, by eagerly pursuing outward 
Treasure, are in great Danger of withering as to the 
inward State of the Mind. 

In meditating on the Works of this Spirit, and on the 
Desolations it makes amongst the Professors of Chris- 
tianity, I may thankfully acknowledge, that I often feel 
pure Love beget Longings in my Heart, for the Exalta- 

John Woolman's Writings 175 

tion of the peaceable Kingdom of Christ, and an Engage- 
ment to labour according to the Gift bestowed on me, 
for the promoting an humble, plain, temperate Way of 
living. A Life where no unnecessary Care, nor Expences, 
may incumber our Minds, nor lessen our Ability to do 
Good; where no Desires after Riches, or Greatness, may 
lead into hard Dealing; where no Connections with 
worldly-minded Men, may abate our Love to God, nor 
weaken a true Zeal for Righteousness. A Life wherein 
we may diligently labour for Resignedness to do, and 
suffer, whatever our Heavenly Father may allot for us, 
in reconciling the World to himself. 

When the Prophet Isaiah had uttered his Vision, and 
declared that a Time was coming wherein Swords should 
he beat into Plowshares, and Spears into pruning Hooks, 
and that Nation shall not lift up Sword against Nation, 
nor learn War any more; he immediately directs the 
Minds of People to the Divine Teacher, in this remarkable 
Language; House of Jacob! come ye, and let us walk in 
the Light of the Lord, Isaiah ii. 5. 

To wait for the Direction of this Light, in all temporal 
as well as spiritual Concerns, appears necessary; for if in 
any Case we enter lightly into temporal Affairs, without 
feeling this Spirit of Truth to open our Way therein, and 
through the Love of this World proceed on, and seek for 
Gain by that Business or Trafiick, which is not of the 
Father, but of the World, i John ii. 16 we fail in our 
Testimony to the Purity and Peace of his Government, 
and get into that which is for Chastisement. 

This Matter hath lain heavy on my Mind, it being 
evident, that a Life less humble, less simple and plain, 
than that which Christ leads his Sheep into, does neces- 
sarily require a Support, which pure Wisdom does not 
provide for; hence there is no Probability of our being 
a peculiar People, so zealous of good Works, as to have no 
Fellowship with Works of Darkness, Titus ii. 14. Ephes. 
V. II. while we have Wants to supply which have their 
Foundation in Custom, and do not come within the Mean- 
ing of those Expressions, your Heavenly Father knoweth 
that ye have need of all these Things, Mat. vi. 32. 

176 John Woolman's Writings 

These Things which he beholds necessary for his People, 
he fails not to give them in his own Way and Time; but 
as his Ways are above our Ways, and his Thoughts above 
our Thoughts, so imaginary Wants are different from 
these Things which he knoweth that we have need of. 

As my Meditations have been on these Things, Com- 
passion hath filled my Heart toward my Fellow Creatures, 
involved in Customs, grown up in the Wisdom of this 
World, which is Foolishness with God, i Cor. iii. 19. And 
that the Youth may be so thoroughly experienced in 
an humble Walking before the Lord, that they may be 
his Children, and know him to be their Refuge, their safe 
unfailing Refuge, through the various Dangers attending 
this uncertain State of Being ! 

If those whose Minds are redeemed from the Love of 
Wealth, and who are content with a plain, simple Way of 
living, do yet find that to conduct the Affairs of a Family, 
without giving Countenance to unrighteous Proceedings, 
or having Fellowship with Works of Darkness, the most 
diligent Care is necessary. 

If Customs, distinguishable from universal Righteous- 
ness, and opposite to the true Self-denying Life, are now 
prevalent, and so mixed with Trade, and with almost 
every Employ, that it is only through humble waiting 
on the inward Guidance of Truth, that we may reasonably 
hope to walk safely, and support an uniform Testimony 
to the peaceable Government of Christ: 

If this be the Case, how lamentably do they expose 
themselves to Temptations, who give way to the Love of 
Riches, conform to expensive Living, and reach forth 
for Gain, to support Customs, which our Holy Shepherd 
leads not into. 







How it is to be maintained. 


And the Remnant o/" Jacob shall be in the midst of many 
People, as the Dew from the Lord, as the Showers upon 
the Grass, that tarrieth not for Man, nor waitethfor the 
Sons of Men, Micah v. 7. 


Re-printed by Mary Hinde. 


As Mankind from one Parent are divided into many 
Families, and as Trading to Sea is greatly increased 
within a few Ages past; amidst this extended Commerce 
how necessary is it that the professed Followers of Christ 
keep sacred his Holy Name, and be employed about 
Trade and Traffick no farther than Justice and Equity 
evidently accompanies? That we may give no just 
Cause of Offence to any, however distant, or unable to 
plead their own Cause; and may continually keep in 
View the Spreading of the true and saving Knowledge of 
God, and his Son Jesus Christ, amongst our Fellow 
Creatures, which through his infinite Love some feel to 
be more precious than any other Treasure. 







On serving the Lord in our outward Employments 

Under the humbling Dispensations of the Father of 
Mercies, I have felt an inward Labour for the Good of 
my Fellow Creatures, and a Concern that the Holy Spirit, 
which alone can restore Mankind to a State of true 
Harmony, may with Singleness of Heart be waited for 
and followed. 

I trust there are many under that Visitation, which 
if faithfully attended to, will make them quick of Under- 
standing in the Fear of the Lord, and qualify with Firm- 
ness to be true Patterns of the Christian Life, who in 
Living and Walking may hold forth an Invitation to 
others, to come out of the Entanglements of the Spirit 
of this World. 

And that which I feel first to express is, a Care for 
those who are in Circumstances, which appear difficult, 
with respect to supporting their Families in a Way answer- 
able to pure Wisdom, that they may not be discouraged, 
but remember that in humbly obeying the Leadings of 
Christ, he owneth us as his Friends, Ye are my Friends 
if ye do whatsoever I command you ; and to be a Friend to 
Christ, is to be united to him, who hath all Power in 
Heaven and in Earth; and though a Woman may forget 
her sucking Child, yet will he not forget his faithful Ones. 


1 82 John Woolman's Writings 

The Condition of many who dwell in Cities hath often 
affected me with a Brotherly Sympathy, attended with a 
Desire that Resignation may be laboured for; and where 
the Holy Leader directeth to a Country Life, or some 
Change of Employ, he may be faithfully followed; for, 
under the refining Hand of the Lord, I have seen that the 
Inhabitants of some Cities are greatly increased through 
some Branches of Business which the Holy Spirit doth 
not lead into, and that being entangled in these Things, 
tends to bring a Cloud over the Minds of People convinced 
of the Leadings of this Holy Leader, and obstructs the 
coming of the Kingdom of Christ on Earth as it is in 

Now if we indulge a Desire to imitate our Neighbours 
in those Things which harmonise not with the true 
Christian Walking, these Entanglements may hold fast 
to us, and some, who in an awakening Time, feel tender 
Scruples, with respect to their Manner of Life, may look 
on the Example of others more noted in the Church, who 
yet may not be refined from every Degree of Dross; and 
by looking on these Examples, and desiring to support 
their Families in a Way pleasant to the natural Mind, 
there may be Danger of the Worldly Wisdom gaining 
Strength in them, and of their Departure from that pure 
Feeling of Truth, which if faithfully attended to, would 
teach Contentment in the Divine Will, even in a very 
low Estate. 

One formerly speaking on the Profitableness of true 
Humility saith, " He that troubles not himself with 
anxious Thoughts for more than is necessary, lives little 
less than the Life of Angels, whilst by a Mind content 
with little, he imitates their want of nothing." Cavers 
Prim. Christi. Page 31. 

"It is not enough," says Teriullian, " that a Christian 
be chaste and modest, but he must appear to be so: 
A Virtue of which he should have so great a Store, that 
it should flow from his Mind upon his Habit, and break 
from the Retirements of his Conscience, into the Super- 
ficies of his Life." Same Book, Page 43. 

" The Garments we wear," says Clemens, " ought to 

John Woolman's Writings 183 

be mean and frugal — that is true Simplicity of Habit, which 
takes away what is vain and superfluous, that the best 
and most solid Garment, which is the farthest from 
Curiosity." Page 49. 

Though the Change from Day to Night, is by a Motion 
so gradual as scarcely to be perceived, yet when Night 
is come we behold it very different from the Day; and 
thus as People become wise in their own Eyes, and prudent 
in their own Sight, Customs rise up from the Spirit of 
this World, and spread by little, and little, till a Departure 
from the Simplicity that there is in Christ becomes as 
distinguishable as Light from Darkness, to such who are 
crucified to the World. 

Our Holy Shepherd, to encourage his Flock in Firmness 
and Perseverance, reminds them of his Love for them; 
As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you ; continue 
ye in my Love. And in another Place graciously points 
out the Danger of departing therefrom, by going into 
unsuitable Employments; this he represents in the 
Similitude of Offence from that useful active Member, 
the Hand; and to fix the Instruction the deeper, names 
the right Hand; 7/ thy right Hand offend thee, cut it off 
and cast it from thee — If thou feelest Offence in thy 
Employment, humbly follow him who leads into all 
Truth, and is a strong and faithful Friend to those who 
are resigned to him. 

Again, he points out those Things which appearing 
pleasant to the natural Mind, are not best for us, in the 
Similitude of Offence from the Eye; // thy right Eye 
offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee. To pluck 
out the Eye, or cut off the Hand, is attended with sharp 
Pain; and how precious is the Instruction which our 
Redeemer thus opens to us, that we may not faint under 
the most painful Trial, but put our Trust in him, even 
in him who sent an Angel to feed Elijah in the Wilderness; 
who fed a Multitude with a few Barley Loaves, and is 
now as attentive to the Wants of his People as ever. 

The Prophet Isaiah represents the unrighteous Doings 
of the Israelites toward the Poor, as the Fruits of an 
effeminate Life; As for my People, Children are their 

184 John Woolman's Writings 

Oppressors, and Women rule over them : What mean ye, 
that ye beat my People to pieces, and grind the Faces of 
the Poor ? saith the Lord God. Then he mentions the 
Haughtiness of the Daughters of Sion, and enumerates 
many Ornaments, as Instances of their Vanity; to up- 
hold which, the Poor were so hardly dealt with, that he 
sets forth their Poverty, their Leanness and Inability to 
help themselves, in the Similitude of a Man maimed by 
Violence, or beaten to pieces, and forced to endure the 
painful Operation of having his Face gradually worn 
away in the manner of grinding. 

And I may here add, that at Times, when I have felt 
true Love open my Heart towards my Fellow Creatures, 
and being engaged in weighty Conversation in the Cause 
of Righteousness, the Instructions I have received under 
these Exercises, in Regard to the true Use of the outward 
Gifts of God, have made deep and lasting Impressions 
on my Mind. 

I have here beheld, how the Desire to provide Wealth, 
and to uphold a delicate Life, hath grievously entangled 
many, and been like Snares to their Offspring; and 
tho' some have been affected with a Sense of their 
Difficulties, and appeared desirous, at Times, to be helped 
out of them ; yet for want of abiding under the humbling 
Power of Truth, they have continued in these Entangle- 
ments; for in remaining conformable to this World, and 
giving Way to a delicate Life, this expensive Way of 
living, in Parents, and in Children, hath called for a large 
Supply, and in answering this Call the Faces of the Poor 
have been ground away, and made thin through hard 

There is Balm, there is a Physician; and what 
Longings do I feel! that we may embrace the Means 
appointed for our Healing, know that removed which 
now ministers Cause for the Cries of many People to 
ascend to Heaven against their Oppressors, and that we 
may see the true Harmony restored. 

Behold how good and how pleasant it is, for Brethren to 
dwell together in Unity. The Nature of this Unity is thus 
opened by the Apostle; // we walk in the Light, as Christ 

John Woolman's Writings 185 

is in the Light, we shall have Fellowship one with another, 
and the Blood of Christ will cleanse us from all Sin. 

The Land may be polluted with innocent Blood, which 
like the Blood of Abel may cry to the Almighty; but 
those who walk in the Light, as Christ is in the Light, 
they know the Lamb of God, who taketh away Sin. 

Walking is a Phrase frequently used in Scripture, to 
represent our Journey thro' Life, and appears to com- 
prehend the various Affairs and Transactions properly 
relating to our being in this World. 

Christ being the Light, dwells always in the Light; 
and if our walking be thus, and in every Affair and 
Concern we faithfully follow this Divine Leader, he pre- 
serves from giving just Cause for any to quarrel with us: 
And where this Foundation is laid, and mutually kept 
to, by Families conversant with each other, the Way is 
open for these Comforts in Society, which our Heavenly 
Father intends as a Part of our Happiness in this World; 
and then we may experience the Goodness, and Pleasant- 
ness of dwelling together in Unity; but where Ways of 
Living take place, which tend to Oppression, and in the 
Pursuit of Wealth, People do that to others which they 
know would not be acceptable to themselves, either in 
exercising an absolute Power over them, or otherwise 
laying on them unequitable Burdens; here a Fear lest 
that Measure should be meted to them, which they have 
measured to others, incites a Care to support that by 
Craft and cunning Devices which stands not on the firm 
Foundation of Righteousness: Thus the Harmony of 
Society is broken, and from hence Commotions and Wars 
do frequently arise in the World. 

Come out of Babylon my People, that ye be not Partakers 
of her Sins, and that ye receive not of her Plagues. Rev. 
XV. 3, 4. This Babel, or Babylon, was built in the Spirit 
of Self-exaltation: Let us build us a City and a Tower, 
whose Top may reach to Heaven, and let us make us a 
Name. Gen. xi. 4. In departing from an humble Trust in 
God, and following a selfish Spirit, People have Intentions 
to get the upperhand of their Fellow Creatures, privately 
meditate on Means to obtain their Ends, have a Language 

i86 John Woolman's Writings 

in their Hearts which is hard to understand. In Babel 
the Language is confounded. 

This City is represented as a Place of Business, and 
those employed in it, as Merchants of the Earth: The 
Merchants of the Earth are waxed rich through the Abund- 
ance of her Delicacies. Rev. xviii. 3. 

And it is remarkable in this Call, that the Language 
from the Father of Mercies is, my People, Come out of 
Babylon my People. Thus his tender Mercies are toward 
us in an imperfect State; and as we faithfully attend to 
the Call, the Path of Righteousness is more and more 
opened; Cravings, which have not their Foundation in 
pure Wisdom, more and more cease; and in an inward 
Purity of Heart, we experience a Restoration of that 
which was lost at Babel, represented by the inspired 
Prophet in the returning of a pure Language. Zeph. iii. 9, 

Happy for them who humbly attend to the Call, Come 
out of Babylon my People. For though in going forth 
we may meet with Trials, which for a Time may be 
painful, yet as we bow in true Humility, and continue 
in it, an Evidence is felt that God only is wise; and that 
in weaning us from all that is selfish he prepares the Way 
to a quiet Habitation, where all our Desires are bounded 
by his Wisdom. And an Exercise of Spirit attends me, 
that we who are convinced of the pure Leadings of Truth, 
may bow in the deepest Reverence, and so watchfully 
regard this Leader, that many who are grievously en- 
tangled in a Wilderness of vain Customs, may look upon 
us and be instructed. And that such who have Plenty 
of this World's Goods, may be faithful in that with which 
they are entrusted! and Example others in the true 
Christian Walking. 

Our blessed Saviour, speaking on Worldly Greatness, 
compares himself to one waiting and attending on a 
Company at Dinner; Whether is greater, he that sitteth at 
Meat or he that serveth ? Is not he that sitteth at Meat ? 
But I am amongst you as he that serveth. Luke xxii. 27. 

Thus in a World greatly disordered, where Men aspiring 
to outward Greatness were wont to oppress others to 
support their Designs, he who was of the highest Descent, 

John Woolman's Writings 187 

being the Son of God^ and greater than any amongst 
the greatest Famihes of Men, by his Example and Doc- 
trines foreclosed his Followers from claiming any Shew 
of outward Greatness, from any supposed Superiority 
in themselves, or derived from their Ancestors. 

He who was greater than Earthly Princes, was not only 
meek and low of Heart, but his outward Appearance was 
plain and lowly, and free from every Stain of the Spirit 
of this World. 

Such was the Example of our blessed Redeemer, of 
whom the beloved Disciple said. He that saith he abideth 
in him, ought also to walk even as he walked. 

John Bradford, who suffered Martyrdom under Queen 
Mary, wrote a Letter to his Friends out of Prison, a short 
Time before he was burnt, in which are these Expressions ; 
" Consider your Dignity as Children of God, and Temples 
of the Holy Ghost, and Members of Christ, be ashamed 
therefore to think, speak, or do any Thing unseemly, for 
God's Children, and the Members of Christ." Fox's Acts 
and Mon. Page 11 77. 

o 402 


On the Example of CHRIST 

As my Mind hath been brought into a Brotherly Feeling 
with the Poor, as to the Things of this Life, who are under 
Trials in regard to getting a Living in a Way answerable 
to the Purity of Truth ; a Labour of Heart hath attended 
me, that their Way may not be made difficult through 
the Love of Money in those who are tried with plentiful 
Estates, but that they with Tenderness of Heart may 
sympathize with them. 

It was the Saying of our blessed Redeemer, Ye cannot 
serve God and Mammon. There is a deep Feeling of the 
Way of Purity, a Way in which the Wisdom of the World 
hath no Part, but is opened by the Spirit of Truth, 
and is called the Way of Holiness ; ^a Way in which the 
Traveller is employed in watching unto Prayer; and the 
outward Gain we get in this Journey is considered as a 
Trust committed to us, by him who formed and supports 
the World; and is the rightful Director of the Use and 
Application of the Product of it. 

Now except the Mind be preserved chaste, there is no 
Safety for us ; but in an Estrangement from true Resigna- 
tion, the Spirit of the World casts up a Way, in which 
Gain is many Times principally attended to, and in which 
there is a selfish Application of outward Treasures. 

How agreeable to the true Harmony of Society, is 
that Exhortation of the Apostle.? Look not every Man 
on his own Things, but every Man also on the Things of 
others. Let this Mind be in you which was also in Christ 

A Person" in outward Prosperity may have the Power 
of obtaining Riches, but the same Mind being in him 
which is in Christ Jesus, he may feel a Tenderness of 
Heart towards those of low Degree; and instead of setting 

John Woolman*s Writings 189 

himself above them, may look upon it as an unmerited 
Favour, that his Way through Life is more easy than the 
Way of many others; may improve every Opportunity 
of leading forth out of those Customs which have en- 
tangled the Family; employ his Time in looking into the 
Wants of the poor Members, and hold forth such a perfect 
Example of Humiliation, that the pure Witness may be 
reached in many Minds; and the Way opened for a 
harmonious walking together. 

Jesus Christ, in promoting the Happiness of others, 
was not deficient in looking for the Helpless, who lay in 
Obscurity, nor did he save any Thing to render himself 
honourable amongst Men, which might have been of more 
Use to the weak Members in his Father's Family; of 
whose Compassion towards us I may now speak a little. 
He who was perfectly happy in himself, moved with 
infinite Love, took not upon him the Nature of Angels, but 
our imperfect Natures, and therein wrestled with the 
Temptations which attend us in this Life; and being the 
Son of him who is greater than Earthly Princes, yet 
became a Companion to poor, sincere-hearted Men; and 
though he gave the clearest Evidence that Divine Power 
attended him, yet the most unfavourable Constructions 
were framed by a self-righteous People; those Miracles 
represented as the Effect of a diabolical Power, and 
Endeavours used to render him hateful, as having his 
Mission from the Prince of Darkness; nor did their Envy 
cease till they took him like a Criminal, and brought him 
to Trial. Though some may affect to carry the Appear- 
ance of being unmoved at the Apprehension of Distress, 
our dear Redeemer, who was perfectly sincere, having 
the same human Nature which we have, and feeling, a 
little before he was apprehended, the Weight of that Work 
upon him, for which he came into the World, was sorrowful 
even unto Death ; here the human Nature struggled to be 
excused from a Cup so bitter; but his Prayers centered 
in Resignation, Not my Will hut thine he done. In this 
Conflict, so great was his Agony, that Sweat like Drops of 
Blood fell from him to the Ground. 

Behold now, as foretold by the Prophet, he is in a 

190 John Woolman's Writings 

judicial Manner numbered with the Transgressors ! Behold 
him as some poor Man of no Reputation, standing before 
the High Priest and Elders, and before Herod and Pilate, 
where Witnesses appear against him, and he mindful of 
the most gracious Design of his Coming, declineth to plead 
in his own Defence, but as a Sheep that is dumb before 
the Shearer, so under many Accusations, Revilings, and 
Buffetings, remained silent. And though he signified to 
Peter, that he had Access to Power sufficient to over- 
throw all their outward Forces; yet retaining a Resigna- 
tion to suffer for the Sins of Mankind, he exerted not that 
Power, but permitted them to go on in their malicious 
Designs, and pronounce him to be worthy of Death, even 
him who was perfect in Goodness ; thus in his Humiliation 
his Judgment was taken away, and he, like some vile 
Criminal, led as a Lamb to the Slaughter. Under these 
heavy Trials (tho* poor unstable Pilate was convinced of 
his Innocence, yet) the People generally looked upon him 
as a Deceiver, a Blasphemer, and the approaching Punish- 
ment as a just Judgment upon him; They esteemed him 
smitten of God and afflicted. So great had been the 
Surprize of his Disciples, at his being taken by armed 
Men, that they forsook him, and fled ; thus they hid their 
Faces from him, he was despised, and by their Conduct 
it appeared as though they esteemed him not. 

But contrary to that Opinion, of his being smitten of 
God and afflicted, it was for our Sakes that he was put 
to Grief ; he was wounded for our Transgressions ; he was 
bruised for our Iniquities ; and under the Weight of them 
manifesting the deepest Compassion for the Instruments 
of his Misery, laboured as their Advocate, and in the 
Deeps of Affliction, with an unconquerable Patience, cried 
out, Father, forgive them, they know not what they do I 

Now this Mind being in us, which was in Christ Jesus, 
it removes from our Hearts the Desire of Superiority, 
Worldly Honour, or Greatness; a deep Attention is felt 
to the Divine Counsellor, and an ardent Engagement to 
promote, as far as we may be enabled, the Happiness of 
Mankind universally: This State, where every Motion 
from a selfish Spirit yieldeth to pure Love, I may, with 

John Woolman's Writings 191 

Gratitude to the Father of Mercies acknowledge, is often 
opened before me as a Pearl to dig after; attended with 
a living Concern^ that amongst the many Nations and 
Families on the Earth, those who believe in the Messiah, 
that he was manifested to destroy the Works of the Devil, 
and thus to take away the Sins of the World, may ex- 
perience the Will of our Heavenly Father, may be done 
on Earth as it is in Heaven. Strong are the Desires I 
often feel, that this Holy Profession may remain un- 
polluted, and the Believers in Christ may so abide in the 
pure inward Feeling of his Spirit, that the Wisdom from 
above may shine forth in their Living, as a Light by 
which others may be instrumentally helped on their Way, 
in the true harmonious Walking. 

On Merchandizing 

Where the Treasures of pure Love are opened, and we 
obediently follow him who is the Light of Life, the Mind 
becomes chaste ; and a Care is felt, that the Unction from 
the Holy One may be our Leader in every Undertaking. 

In being crucified to the World, broken off from that 
Friendship which is Enmity with God, and dead to the 
Customs and Fashions which have not their Foundation 
in the Truth; the Way is prepared to Lowliness in out- 
ward Living, and to a Disintanglement from those Snares 
which attends the Love of Money ; and where the faithful 
Friends of Christ are so situated that Merchandize appears 
to be their Duty, they feel a Restraint from proceeding 
farther than he owns their Proceeding; being convinced 
that we are not our own, but are bought with a Price, that 
none of us may live to ourselves, but to him who died for us, 
2 Cor. V. 15. Thus they are taught, not only to keep 
to a moderate Advance and Uprightness in their Dealings; 
but to consider the Tendency of their Proceeding; to 
do nothing which they know would operate against the 
Cause of universal Righteousness; and to keep continu- 
ally in View the Spreading of the peaceable Kingdom 
of Christ amongst Mankind. 

The Prophet Isaiah spake of the gathered Church, in 
the Similitude of a City, where many being employed 
were all preserved in Purity; They shall call them the 
Holy People, the Redeemed of the Lord, and thou shall be 
called sought out, a City not forsaken, Isa. Ixiii. 10. And 
the Apostle, after mentioning the Mystery of Christ's 
Sufferings, exhorts. Be ye Holy in all Manner of Con- 
versation, I Pet. i. 15. There is a Conversation necessary 
in Trade; and there is a Conversation so foreign from the 
Nature of Christ's Kingdom, that it is represented in the 


John Woolman's Writings 193 

Similitude of one Man pushing another with a warlike 
Weapon; There is that speaketh like the Piercings of a 
Sword, Prov. xii. 18. Now in all our Concerns it is 
necessary that the Leading of the Spirit of Christ be 
humbly waited for, and faithfully followed, as the only 
Means of being preserved chaste as an Holy People, who 
in all Things are circumspect, Exod. xxiii. 13, that nothing 
we do may carry the Appearance of Approbation of the 
Works of Wickedness, make the Unrighteous more at 
Ease in Unrighteousness, or occasion the Injuries com- 
mitted against the Oppressed to be more lightly looked 

Where Morality is kept to, and supported by the 
Inhabitants of a Country, there is a certain Reproach 
attends those Individuals amongst them, who manifestly 
deviate therefrom. But where Iniquity is committed 
openly, and the Authors of it are not brought to Justice, 
nor put to Shame, their Hands grow strong. Thus the 
general Corruption of the Jews shortly before their State 
was broke up by the Chaldeans, is described by their 
Boldness in Impiety; for as their Leaders were connected 
together in Wickedness they strengthened one another, 
and grew confident; Were they ashamed when they had 
committed Abominations ? Nay, they were not at all 
ashamed, neither could they blush, Jer. vi. 15, on which 
Account the Lord thus expostulates with them, What 
hath my Beloved to do in my House, seeing she hath wrought 
Lewdness with many, and the Holy Flesh is passed from 
thee ; when thou doest Evil, then thou rejoicest, Jer. xi. 15. 

Now the faithful Friends of Christ, who hunger and 
thirst after Righteousness, and inwardly breathe that his 
Kingdom may come on Earth as it is in Heaven, he 
teacheth them to be quick of Understanding in his Fear, 
and to be very attentive to the Means he may appoint 
for promoting pure Righteousness in the Earth; and as 
Shame is due to those whose works manifestly operate 
against the gracious Design of his Sufferings for us, a 
Care lives on their Minds that no wrong Customs however 
supported may bias their Judgments, but that they may 
humbly abide under the Cross, and be preserved in a 

194 John Woolman's Writings 

Conduct which may not contribute to strengthen the 
Hands of the Wicked in their Wickedness, or to remove 
Shame from those to whom it is justly due. The Coming 
of that Day is precious, in which we experience the Truth 
of this Expression, The Lord our Righteousness, Jer. xiii. 6, 
and feel him to be made unto us Wisdom and Saitctiflcation. 

The Example of a righteous Man is often looked at 
with Attention. Where righteous Men join in Business, 
their Company gives Encouragement to others; and as 
one Grain of Incense deliberately offered to the Prince of 
this World, renders an Offering to God in that State 
unacceptable; and from those esteemed Leaders of the 
People may be injurious to the Weak; it requires deep 
Humility of Heart, to follow him faithfully, who alone 
gives sound Wisdoih, and the Spirit of true Discerning; 
and how necessary it is, to consider the Weight of a 
Holy Profession! 

The Conduct of some formerly gave Occasion of Com- 
plaint against them; Thon hast defiled thy Sanctuaries 
by the Multitude of thine Iniquities, by the Iniquity of thy 
Traffick, Ezek. xxviii. i8, and in several Places it is 
charged against Israel, that they had polluted the Holy 

The Prophet Isaiah represents inward Sanctification in 
the Similitude of being purged from that which is Fuel 
for Fire; and particularly describes the outward Fruits, 
brought forth by those who dwell in this inward Holiness; 
They walk righteously, and speak uprightly. By walking 
he represents the Journey through Life, as a righteous 
Journey; and by speaking uprightly, seems to point at 
that which Moses appears to have had in View, when he 
thus express'd himself; Thou shalt not follow a Multitude 
to do Evil, nor speak in a Cause to decline after many to 
wrest Judgment, Exod. xxiii. 2. 

He goes on to shew their Firmness in Equity; repre- 
senting them as Persons superior to all the Arts of getting 
Money, which have not Righteousness for their Founda- 
tion; They despise the Gain of Oppressions : And further 
shews how careful they are that no Prospects of Gain 
may induce them to become partial in Judgment respect- 

John Woolman's Writings 195 

ing an Injury; They shake their Hands from holding 

Again^ where any Interest is so connected with shed- 
ding Bloodj that the Cry of innocent Blood goes also with 
it; he points out their Care to keep innocent Blood from 
crying against them, in the Similitude of a Man's stopping 
his Ears to prevent a Sound from entering his Head; 
They stop their Ears from hearing Blood : And where they 
know that Wickedness is committed, he points out with 
Care, that they do not by an unguarded Friendship with 
the Authors of it, appear like unconcerned Lookers on, 
but as People so deeply affected with Sorrow, that they 
cannot endure to stand by and behold it; this he re- 
presents in the Similitude of a Man shutting his Eyes from 
seeing Evil. 

Who amongst us shall dwell with devouring Fire ? Who 
amongst us shall dwell with everlasting Burnings ? He 
that walketh righteously and speaketh uprightly. He that 
despiseth the Gain of Oppressions, that shaketh his Hands 
from holding of Bribes, that stoppeth his Ears from hearing of 
Blood, and shutteth his Eyes from seeing Evil, Isa. xxxiii. 15. 

He proceeds in the Spirit of Prophecy to shew how the 
Faithful, being supported under Temptations, would be 
preserved from that Defilement that there is in the Love 
of Money; that as they who in a reverent Waiting on 
God, feel their Strength renewed, are said to mount 
upward; so here their Preservation from the Snare of 
unrighteous Gain, is represented in the Likeness of a Man, 
borne up above all crafty, artful Means of getting the 
Advantage of another; They shall dwell on high; and 
points out the Stability and Firmness of their Condition; 
His Place of Defence shall be the Munition of Rocks ; 
and that under all the outward Appearances of Loss, in 
denying himself of gainful Profits for Righteousness 
Sake, yet through the Care of him who provides for the 
Sparrows, he should have a Supply answerable to his 
infinite Wisdom; Bread shall be given him, his Waters 
shall be sure. And as our Saviour mentions the Sight of 
God to be attainable by the Pure in Heart, so here the 
Prophet pointed out, how in true Sanctification the 

196 John Woolman's Writings 

Understanding is opened, to behold the peaceable har- 
monious Nature of his Kingdom; thine Eyes shall see the 
King in his Beauty : And that looking beyond all the 
Afflictions which attend the Righteous, to a Habitation 
eternal in the Heavens, they with an eye divinely open 
shall behold the Land that is very far off. 

He shall dwell on high, his Place of Defence shall be the 
Munition of Rocks, Bread shall be given him, his Waters 
shall be sure. Thine Eyes shall see the King in his Beauty ; 
they shall behold the Land that is very far off, Isa. xxxiii. 16. 

1 often remember, and to me the Subject is awful, that 
the great Judge of all the Earth doeth that which is 
right, and that he, before whom the Nations are as the Drop 
of a Bucket, is no Respecter of Persons. Happy for them, 
who like the inspired Prophet, in the Way of his Judgments 
wait for him, Isa. xxvi. 8. 

When we feel him to sit as a Refiner with Fire, and 
know a Resignedness wrought in us, to that which he 
appoints for us, his Blessing in a very low Estate, is 
found to be more precious than much outward Treasure 
in those Ways of Life, where the Leadings of his Spirit 
are not followed. 

The Prophet in a Sight of a divine Work amongst many 
People, declared in the Name of the Lord, / will gather all 
Nations and Tongues, and they shall come and see my 
Glory, Isa. Ixvi. 18. And again, from the rising of the 
Sun to the going down of the same, my Name shall be great 
amongst the Gentiles, and in every Place Incense shall be 
offered to my Name, and a pure Offering, Malachi i. 11. 

Behold here how the Prophets had an inward Sense 
of the Spreading of the Kingdom of Christ; and how he 
was spoken of as one who should take the Heathen for 
his Inheritance, and the utmost Parts of the Earth for his 
Possession, Psal. ii. 8. That he was given for a Light to 
the Gentiles; and for Salvation to the Ends of the Earth, 
Isa. xlix. 6. 

When we meditate on this divine Work, as a Work of 
Ages; a Work that the Prophets felt long before Christ 
appeared visibly on Earth, and remember the bitter 
Agonies he endured when he poured out his Soul unto 

John Woolman's Writings 197 

Death, that the Heathen Nations, as well as others, might 
come to the Knowledge of the Truth and be saved. 

When we contemplate on this marvellous Work, as 
that which the Angels desire to look into, i Pet. i. 12. And 
behold People amongst whom this Light hath eminently 
broken forth, and who have received many Favours from 
the bountiful Hand of our Heavenly Father; not only 
indifferent with respect to publishing the glad Tidings 
amongst the Gentiles, as yet sitting in Darkness and 
entangled with many Superstitions; but aspiring after 
Wealth and worldly Honours, take hold of Means to 
obtain their Ends, tending to stir up Wrath and Indigna- 
tion, and to beget an Abhorrence in them to the Name of 
Christianity. When these Things are weightily attended 
to, how mournful is the Subject? 

It is worthy of Remembrance, that People in different 
Ages, deeply baptized into the Nature of that Work for 
which Clurist suffered, have joyfully offered up their 
Liberty and Lives for the promoting of it in the Earth. 

Policarp, who was reputed a Disciple of the Apostle 
John, having attained to great Age, was at length sentenced 
to die for his Religion; and being brought to the Fire, 
prayed nearly as follows, " Thou God and Father of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, by whom I have received the Know- 
ledge of thee! God of the Angels and Powers, and ol 
every living Creature, and of all Sorts of just Men which 
live in thy Presence. I thank thee, that thou hast 
graciously vouchsafed this Day and this Hour to allot 
me a Portion among the Number of Martyrs, among the 
People of Christ, unto the Resurrection of everlasting 
Life; among whom I shall be received in thy Sight, this 
Day, as a fruitful and acceptable Sacrifice; wherefore for 
all this, I praise thee, I bless thee, I glorify thee through 
the everlasting High Priest, Jesus Christ, thy well-beloved 
Son; to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be all 
Glory, World without End. Amen" 

Bishop Latimer, when Sentence of Death by Fire was 
pronounced against him, on Account of his Firmness in 
the Cause of Religion, he said, " I thank God most 
heartily, that he hath prolonged my Life to this End; 

198 John Woolman's Writings 

that I may in this Case glorify him by this Kind of 
Death." Fox's Acts and Mon. 936. 

William Dewsbury, who had suffered much for his 
ReHgion, in his last Sickness, encouraging his Friends to 
Faithfulness, made mention, like good old Jacob, of the 
Loving-kindness of God to him in the Course of his Life, 
and that through the Power of Divine Love, he, for 
Christ's Sake, had joyfully entered Prisons. See Intro- 
duction to his Works. 

I mention these as a few Examples, out of many of the 
powerful Operations of the Spirit of Christ, where People 
are fully devoted to it, and of the ardent Longings in their 
Minds for the Spreading of his Kingdom amongst Man- 
kind. Now to those, in the present Age, who truly know 
Christ, and feel the Nature of his peaceable Government 
opened in their Understandings, how loud is that Call 
wherewith we are called to Faithfulness; that in follow- 
ing this pure Light of Life, we, as Workers together with 
him, may labour in that great Work for which he was 
offered as a Sacrifice on the Cross ; and that his peaceable 
Doctrines may shine through us in their real Harmony, 
at a Time when the Name of Christianity is become hateful 
to many of the Heathen. 

When Gehazi had obtained Treasures which the Prophet 
under divine Direction had refused, and was returned 
from the Business; the Prophet troubled at his Conduct, 
queried if it was a Time thus to prepare for a specious 

Is it a Time to receive Money and Garments, Men Servants 
and Maid Servants ? The Leprosy therefore of Naaman 
shall cleave to thee, and to thy Seed for ever, 2 Kings v. 26. 
And that we may lay to Heart the Condition of the 
present Time, and humbly follow his Counsel, who alone 
is able to prepare the Way for a true harmonious Walking 
amongst Mankind, 

On Divine Admonitions 

Such are the Perfections of our Heavenly Father, that 
in all the Dispensations of his Providence, it is our Duty, 
in every Thing, to give Thanks. Though from the first 
Settlement of this Part of Ainerica, he hath not extended 
his Judgments to the Degree of Famine, yet Worms at 
Times have come forth beyond numbering, and laid waste 
Fields of Grain and Grass, where they have appeared; 
another Kind, in great Multitudes, working out of Sight, 
in Grass Ground, have so eat the Roots, that the Surface, 
being loosened from the Soil beneath, might be taken off 
in great Sheets. 

These Kind of devouring Creatures appearing seldom, 
and coming in such Multitudes, their Generation appears 
different from most other Reptiles, and by the Prophet 
were call'd God's Army sent amongst the People, Joel ii. 25. 

There have been Tempests of Hail, which have very 
much destroyed the Grain where they extended. Through 
long Drought in Summer, Grain in some Places hath been 
less than half the usual Quantity; ^ and in the Continuance 
thereof, I have beheld with Attention, from Week to 
Week, how Dryness from the Top of the Earth, hath 
extended deeper and deeper, while the Corn and Plants 
have languished; and with Reverence my Mind hath been 
turned towards him, who being perfect in Goodness, in 
Wisdom and Power, doeth all Things right. And after 
long Drought, when the Sky hath grown dark with a 
Collection of Matter, and Clouds like Lakes of Water 
hung over our Heads, from whence the thirsty Land hath 
been soaked; I have at Times, with Awfulness, beheld 
the vehement Operation of Lightning, made sometimes 

* When Crops fail, I often feel a tender Care that the Case of poor 
Tenants may be mercifully considered. 


200 John Woolman's Writings 

to accompany these Blessings, as a Messenger from him 
who created all Things, to remind us of our Duty in a 
right Use of those Benefits, and give striking Admoni- 
tions, that we do not misapply those Gifts, in which an 
Almighty Power is exerted, in bestowing them upon us. 

When I have considered that many of our Fellow 
Creatures suffer much in some Places, for want of the 
Necessaries of Life, whilst those who rule over them 
are too much given to Luxury, and divers Vanities; 
and behold the apparent Deviation from pure Wisdom 
amongst us, in the Use of the outward Gifts of God; 
those Marks of Famine have appeared like humbling 
Admonitions from him, that we might be instructed by 
gentle Chastisements, and might seriously consider our 
Ways; remembering that the outward Supply of Life 
is a Gift from our Heavenly Father, and no more venture 
to use, or apply his Gifts, in a Way contrary to pure 

Should we continue to reject those merciful Admoni- 
tions, and use his Gifts at Home, contrary to the gracious 
Design of the Giver, or send them Abroad in a Way of 
Trade, which the Spirit of Truth doth not lead into; 
and should he whose Eyes are upon all our Ways, extend 
his Chastisements so far as to reduce us to much greater 
Distress than hath yet been felt by these Provinces ; with 
what sorrow of Heart might we meditate on that Subject, 
Hast thou not procured this unto thyself, in that thou hast 
forsaken the Lord thy God, when he led thee by the Way ? 
Thine own Wickedness shall correct thee, and thy Backslid- 
tngs shall reprove thee ; know therefore, and see that it is an 
evil Thing and bitter, that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy 
God, and that my Fear is not in thee, saith the Lord of 
Hosts, Jer. ii. 17, 19. 

My Mind hath often been affected with Sorrow, in 
beholding a wrong Application of the Gifts of our Heavenly 
Father; and those Expressions concerning the Defile- 
ment of the Earth have been opened to my Understand- 
ing; The Earth was corrupt before God, and the Earth was 
filled with Violence, Gen. vi. 11. Again, Isaiah xxiv. 5. 
The Earth also is defiled under the Inhabitants thereof. 

John Woolman's Writings 201 

The Earth being the Work of a Divine Power, may not 
as such be accounted unclean; but when Violence is 
committed thereon, and the Channel of Righteousness 
so obstructed, that in our Skirts are found the Blood of the 
Souls of poor Innocents ; not by a secret Search, but upon 
all these, '^ Jer. ii. 34. 

When Blood shed unrighteously remains unatoned for, 
and the Inhabitants are not effectually purged from it, 
when they do not wash their Hands in Innocency, as was 
figured in the Law, in the Case of one being found slain; 
but seek for Gain arising from Scenes of Violence and 
Oppression, here the Land is polluted with Blood, Deut. 
xxi. 6. 

Moreover, when the Earth is planted and tilled, and the 
Fruits brought forth are applied to support unrighteous 
Purposes; here the gracious Design of infinite Goodness, 
in these his Gifts being perverted, the Earth is defiled; 
and the Complaint formerly uttered becomes applicable; 
Thou hast made me to serve with thy Sins; thou hast wearied 
me with thine Iniquities, Isaiah xliii. 24^ 

1 See a Caution and Warning to Great Britain and her Colonies 
Page 31. 








Re-printed by Mary Hinde. 

p 402 


Beloved Friends, — Feeling at this Time a renewed 
Concern that the pure Principle of Light and Life, and the 
righteous Fruits thereof may spread and prevail amongst 
Mankind, there is an Engagement on my Heart to labour 
with my Brethren in religious Profession, that none of 
us may be a Stumbling-block in the Way of others; but 
may so walk that our Conduct may reach the pure 
Witness in the Hearts of such who are not in Profession 
with us. 

And, dear Friends, while we publickly own that the 
Holy Spirit is our Leader, the Profession is in itself 
weighty, and the Weightiness thereof increaseth in Pro- 
portion as we are noted among the Professors of Truth, 
and active in dealing with such who walk disorderly. 

Many under our Profession, for Want of due Attention, 
and a perfect Resignation, to this Divine Teacher, have 
in some Things manifested a Deviation from the Purity 
of our religious Principles, and these Deviations having 
crept in amongst us by little and little, and increasing from 
less to greater, have been so far unnoticed, that some 
living in them, have been active in putting Discipline 
in Practice with relation to others, whose Conduct hath 
appeared more dishonourable in the World. 

Now as my Mind hath been exercised before the Lord, 
I have seen, that the Discipline of the Church of Christ 
standeth in that which is pure; that it is the Wisdom 
from above which gives Authority to Discipline, and 
that the Weightiness thereof standeth not in any out- 
ward Circumstances, but in the Authority of Christ who 
is the Author of it; and where any walk after the Flesh, 
and not according to the Purity of Truth, and at the same 
Time are active in putting Discipline in Practice, a Veil 
is gradually drawn over the Purity of Discipline, and 


2o6 John Woolman's Writings 

over that Holiness of Life, which Christ leads those into, 
in whom the Love of God is verily perfected, i John ii. 5. 

When we labour in true Love with Offenders, and they 
remain obstinate, it sometimes is necessary to proceed 
as far as our Lord directed; Let him be to thee as an 
heathen Man, or a Publican, Mat. xviii. 17. 

Now when such are disowned, and they who act therein 
feel Christ made unto them Wisdom, and are preserved 
in his meek, restoring Spirit, there is no just Cause of 
Offence ministered to any; but when such who are active 
in dealing with Offenders, indulge themselves in Things 
which are contrary to the Purity of Truth, and yet judge 
others whose Conduct appears more dishonourable than 
theirs, here the pure Authority of Discipline ceaseth as 
to such Offenders, and a Temptation is laid in their Way 
to wrangle and contend; — Judge not, said our Lord, that 
ye be not Judged. Now this forbidding alludes to Man's 
Judgment, and points out the Necessity of our humbly 
attending to that sanctifying Power, under which the 
Faithful experience the Lord to be a Spirit of Judgment 
to them, Isa. xxviii. 6. And as we feel his Holy Spirit to 
mortify the Deeds of the Body in us, and can say. It is 
no more I that live, but Christ that liveth in me, here right 
Judgment is known. 

And while Divine Love prevails in our Hearts, and Self 
in us is brought under Judgment, a Preparation is felt 
to labour in a right Manner with Offenders; but if we 
abide not in this Love, our outward Performance in deal- 
ing with others, degenerates into Formality; for this is 
the Love of God, that we keep his Commandments, John i. 3. 

How weighty are those Instructions of our Redeemer 
concerning religious Duties, when he points out, that they 
who pray, should be so obedient to the Teachings of the 
Holy Spirit, that humbly confiding in his Help, they may 
say, Thy Name, Father 1 be hallowed. Thy Kingdom 
come. Thy Will be done on Earth, as it is in Heaven. — 
In this awful State of Mind is felt that Worship which 
stands in doing the Will of God on Earth, as it is done in 
Heaven, and keeping the Holy Name sacred: To take a 
Holy Profession upon us is awful, nor can we keep his 

John Woolinan's Writings 207 

Holy Name sacred, but by humbly abiding under the 
Cross of Christ. The Apostle laid a heavy Complaint 
against some who prophaned this Holy Name by their 
Manner of Living, Through you, he says, the Name of God 
is blasphemed among the Gentiles, Rom. ii. 24. 

Some of our Ancestors, through many Tribulations, 
were gathered into the State of true Worshippers, and had 
Fellowship in that which is pure; and as one was inwardly 
moved to kneel down in their Assemblies, and publickly 
call on the Name of the Lord, those in the Harmony of 
united Exercise then present, joined in the Prayer: I 
mention this, in order that we of the present Age, may 
look unto the Rock from whence we were hewn, and 
remember that to unite in Worship, is an Union in Prayer, 
and that Prayer acceptable to the Father, is only in a 
Mind truly sanctified, where the sacred Name is kept Holy, 
and the Heart resigned to do his Will on Earth, as it is 
done in Heaven; If ye abide in me, saith Christ, and my 
Words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will in my Name, 
and it shall be done unto you. — Now we know not what 
to pray for as we ought, but as the Holy Spijit doth open 
and direct our Minds, and as we faithfully yield to its 
Influences, our Prayers are in the Will of our Heavenly 
Father, who fails not to grant that which his own Spirit, 
through his Children, asketh; — thus Preservation from 
Sin is known, and the Fruits of Righteousness are brought 
forth by such who inwardly unite in Prayer. 

How weighty are our solemn Meetings when the Name 
of Christ is kept Holy ! 

" How precious is that State in which the Children of 
the Lord are so redeemed from the Love of this World, 
that they are accepted and blessed in all that they do! " 
R. Barclays Apology, Page 404. 

How necessary is it that we who profess these Prin- 
ciples, and are outwardly active in supporting them, 
should faithfully abide in Divine Strength, that as he who 
has called us, is Holy, so we may be Holy in all manner of 
Conversation, i Pet. i. 15. 

If one professing to be influenced by the Spirit of Christ, 
propose to unite in a Labour to promote Righteousness 

2o8 John Woolman's Writings 

in the Earthy and in Time past he hath manifestly deviated 
from the Paths of Equity, then to act consistent with this 
Principle, his first Work is to make Restitution so far as 
he may be enabled; for if he attempts to contribute 
toward a Work intended to promote Righteousness, while 
it appears that he neglecteth, or refuseth to act righteously 
himself, his Conduct has a Tendency to entangle the 
Minds of those who are weak in the Faith, who behold 
these Things, and to draw a Veil over the Purity of 
Righteousness, by carrying an Appearance as though that 
was Righteousness which is not. 

Again, if I propose to assist in supporting those Doc- 
trines wherein that Purity of Life is held forth, in which 
Customs proceeding from the Spirit of this World have 
no Place, and at the same Time strengthen others in 
those Customs by my Example; the first Step then in 
an orderly Proceeding, is to cease from those Customs 
myself, and afterwards to labour, as I may be enabled, 
to promote the like Disposition and Conduct in others. 

To be convinced of the pure Principle of Truth, and 
diligently exercised in walking answerable thereto, is 
necessary before I can consistently recommend this Prin- 
ciple to others. — I often feel a Labour in Spirit, that 
we who are active Members in religious Society, may 
experience in ourselves the Truth of those Expressions 
of the Holy One; / will be sanctified in them that come 

nigh me, Lev. x. 3. In this Case, my Mind hath been 

often exercised when alone, Year after Year, for many 
Years, and in the Renewings of Divine Love, a tender 
Care hath been incited in me, that we who profess the 
inward Principle of Light to be our Teacher, may be a 
Family united in that Purity of Worship, which com- 
prehends a Holy Life, and ministers Instruction to others. 

My Mind is often drawn towards Children in the Truth, 
who having a small Share of the Things of this Life, 
and coming to have Families, may be inwardly exercised 
before the Lord to support them in a Way agreeable to 
the Purity of Truth, in which they may feel his Blessing 
upon them in their Labours ; the Thoughts of such being 
entangled with Customs, contrary to pure Wisdom, 

John Woolman's Writings 209 

conveyed to them through our Hands, doth often very 
tenderly, and movingly affect my Heart, and when I 
look towards, and think on the succeeding Generation, 
fervent Desires are raised in me, that we by yielding to 
that Holy Spirit which leads into all Truth, may not do 
the Work of the Lord deceitfully, may not live contrary 
to the Purity of the Divine Principle we profess; but 
that as faithful Labourers in our Age, we may be instru- 
mental in removing Stumbling-blocks out of the Way of 
those who may succeed us. 

So great was the Love of Christ, that he gave himself 
for the Church, that he might sanctify and cleanse it, that 
it should be Holy, and without Blemish, not having Spot 
or Wrinkle, or any such Thing, Eph. v. 25. and where any 
take the Name of Christ upon them, professing to be 
Members of his Church, and led by his Holy Spirit, and 
yet manifestly deviate from the Purity of Truth, they 
herein act against the gracious Design of his giving himself 
for them, and minister Cause for the Continuance of his 
Afflictions, viz. in his Body the Church. 

Christ suffered Afflictions in a Body of Flesh prepared 
by the Father, but the Afflictions of his mystical Body 
are yet unfinished ; for they who are baptized into Christ 
are baptized into his Death; and as we humbly abide 
under his sanctifying Power, and are brought forth into 
Newness of Life, we feel Christ to live in us, who being 
the same Yesterday, To-day, and forever, and always at 
Unity with himself, his Spirit in the Hearts of his People 
leads to an inward Exercise for the Salvation of Mankind ; 
and when under a Travail of Spirit, we behold a visited 
People entangled by the Spirit of the World with its 
Wickedness and Customs, and thereby rendered incapable 
of being faithful Examples to others. Sorrow and Heaviness 
under a Sense of these Things, is often experienced, and 
thus in some Measure is filled up that which remains of 
the Afflictions of Christ. 

Our blessed Saviour speaking concerning Gifts offered 
in Divine Service, says, // thou bring thy Gift to the Altar, 
and there remembrest that thy Brother hath ought against 
thee, leave there thy Gift before the Altar, and go thy Way, 

2IO John Woolman's Writings 

first be reconciled to thy Brother, and then come and Q-Qer thy 
Gift, Mat. V. 23, 24. Now there is no true Unity, but 
in that wherein the Father and the Son are united, nor 
can there be a perfect Reconcihation but in ceasing from 
that which ministers Cause for the Continuation of the 
Afflictions of Christ; and if any professing to bring their 
Gift to the Altar, do remember the customary Contra- 
diction which some of their Fruits bear to the pure 
spiritual Worship, here it appears necessary to lay to 
Heart this Command, Leave thy Gift hy the Altar. 

Christ graciously calls his People Brethren; Whosoever 
shall do the Will of God, the same is my Brother, Mark iii. 35. 
Now if we walk contrary to the Truth as it is in Jesus, 
while we continue to profess it, we offend against Christ, 
and if under this Offence we bring our Gift to the Altar, 
our Redeemer doth not direct us to take back our Gift, 
he doth not discourage our proceeding in a good Work; 
but graciously points out the necessary Means by which 
the Gift may be rendered acceptable. Leave, saith he, thy 
Gift by the Altar, first go and be reconciled to thy Brother, 
cease from that which grieves the Holy Spirit, cease from 
that which is against the Truth, as it is in Jesus, and then 
come and offer thy Gift. 

I feel, while I am writing, a Tenderness to those who 
through Divine Favour are preserved in a lively Sense 
of the State of the Churches, and at Times may be under 
Discouragements with regard to proceeding in that pure 
Way which Christ by his Holy Spirit leads into: The 
Depth of Disorder and Weakness, which so much pre- 
vails, being opened, Doubtings are apt to arise as to the 
Possibility of proceeding as an Assembly of the Lord's 
People in the pure Council of Truth; and here I feel a 
Concern to express in Uprightness, that which hath been 
opened in my Mind, under the Power of the Cross of Christ, 
relating to a visible gathered Church, the Members whereof 
are guided by the Holy Spirit. 

The Church is called the Body of Christ, Col. i, 24. 

Christ is called the Head of the Church, Eph. i. 22, 

The Church is called the Pillar, and Ground of Truth, 
I Tim. iii. 15. 

John Woolman's Writings 2 1 1 

Thus the Church hath a Name that is sacred, and the 
Necessity of keeping this Name Holy, appears evident; 
for where a Number of People unite in a Profession of 
being led by the Spirit of Christ, and publish their 
Principles to the World, the Acts and Proceedings of that 
People may in some Measure be considered as such which 
Christ is the Author of. 

Now while we stand in this Station, if the pure Light of 
Life is not followed and regarded in our Proceedings, we 
are in the Way of prophaning the Holy Name, and of 
going back toward that Wilderness of Sufferings and 
Persecution, out of which, through the tender Mercies of 
God, a Church hath been gathered; Christ liveth in 
sanctified Vessels, Gal. ii. 20. and where they behold his 
Holy Name prophaned, and the pure Gospel Light 
eclipsed, through the Unfaithfulness of any who by their 
Station appear to be Standard-bearers under the Prince 
of Peace, the living Members in the Body of Christ in 
beholding these Things, do in some degree experience the 
Fellowship of his Sufferings; and as the Wisdom of the 
World more and more takes Place in conducting the 
Affairs of this visible gathered Church, and the pure 
Leadings of the Holy Spirit less waited for and followed, 
so the true Suffering Seed is more and more oppressed. 

My Mind is often affected with a Sense of the Condition 
of sincere-hearted People in some Kingdoms, where 
Liberty of Conscience is not allowed, many of whom 
being burthened in their Minds with prevailing Super- 
stition joined with Oppressions, are often under Sorrow; 
and where such have attended to that pure Light which 
hath in some degree opened their Understandings, and 
for their Faithfulness thereto, have been brought to 
Examination and Trial, how heavy are the Persecutions 
which in divers Parts of the World are exercised upon 
them! How mighty, as to the outward, is that Power 
by which they are borne down, and oppressed ! 

How deeply affecting is the Condition of many upright- 
hearted People who are taken into the Papal Inquisition ! 
What lamentable Cruelties, in deep Vaults, in a private 
Way, are exercised on many of them ! And how lingering 

212 John Woolman's Writings 

is that Death by a small slow Fire, which they have fre- 
quently indured, who have been faithful to the End ! 

How many tender spirited Protestants have been 
sentenced to spend the Remainder of their Lives in a 
Galley chained to Oars, under hard-hearted Masters, 
while their young Children are placed out for Education, 
and taught Principles so contrary to the Conscience of 
the Parents, that by dissenting from them, they have 
hazarded their Liberty, Lives, and all that was dear to 
them of the Things of this World ! 

There have been in Time past severe Persecutions 
under the English Government, and many sincere-hearted 
People have suffered Death for the Testimony of a good 
Conscience, whose Faithfulness in their Day hath ministred 
Encouragement to others, and been a Blessing to many 
who have succeeded them; thus from Age to Age, the 
Darkness being more and more removed, a Channel at 
length, through the tender Mercies of God, hath been 
opened for the Exercise of the pure Gift of the Gospel 
Ministry, without Interruption from outward Power, a 
Work, the like of which is rare, and unknown in many 
Parts of the World. 

As these Things are often fresh in my Mind, and this 
great Work of God going on in the Earth has been open 
before me, that Liberty of Conscience with which we are 
favoured, hath appeared not as a light Matter. 

A Trust is committed to us, a great and weighty Trust, 
to which our diligent Attention is necessary, wherever 
the active Members of this visible gathered Church use 
themselves to that which is contrary to the Purity of 
our Principles, it appears to be a Breach of this Trust, 
and one Step back toward the Wilderness, one Step 
towards undoing what God in infinite Love hath done 
through his faithful Servants, in a Work of several Ages, 
and like laying the Foundation for future Sufferings. 

I feel a living Invitation in my Mind to such who are 
active in our religious Society, that we may lay to Heart 
this Matter, and consider the Station in which we stand; 
a Place of outward Liberty under the free Exercise of 
our Conscience toward God, not obtained but through 

John Woolman's Writings 213 

great and manifold Afflictions of those who lived before 
us. There is Gratitude due from us to our Heavenly- 
Father, and Justice to our Posterity; can our Hearts 
endure, or our Hands be strong, if we desert a Cause so 
precious, if we turn aside from a Work, under which so 
many have patiently laboured? 

May the deep Sufferings of our Saviour be so dear to 
us, that we may never trample under Foot the adorable 
Son of God, nor count the Blood of the Covenant unholy ! 

May the Faithfulness of the Martyrs when the Prospect 
of Death by Fire was before them, be remembred. And 
may the patient constant Sufferings of the upright- 
hearted Servants of God in latter Ages be revived in our 
Minds. And may we so follow on to know the Lord, 
that neither the Faithful in this Age, nor those in Ages 
to come, may ever be brought under Suffering, through 
our sliding back from the Work of Reformation in the 

While the active Members in the visible gathered Church 
stand upright, and the Affairs thereof are carried on under 
the Leadings of the Holy Spirit, although Disorders may 
arise among us, and cause many Exercises to those who 
feel the Care of the Churches upon them; yet while these 
continue under the Weight of the Work, and labour in 
the Meekness of Wisdom for the Help of others, the Name 
of Christ in the visible gathered Church may be kept 
sacred; but while they who are active in the Affairs of 
this Church, continue in a manifest Opposition to the 
Purity of our Principles, this, as the Prophet Isaiah x. 18. 
expresseth it, is like as when a Standard-bearer fainteth ; 
and thus the Way opens to great and prevailing De- 
generacy, and to Sufferings for such who through the 
Power of Divine Love, are separated to the Gospel of 
Christ, and cannot unite with any Thing which stands in 
Opposition to the Purity of it. 

The Necessity of an inward Stillness, hath under these 
Exercises appeared clear to my Mind; in true Silence 
Strength is renewed, the Mind herein is weaned from all 
Things, but as they may be enjoyed in the Divine Will, 
and a Lowliness in outward Living opposite to Worldly 

2 14 ]^^^ Woolman's Writings 

^v Honour^ becomes truly acceptable to us; — in the Desire 
after outward Gain, the Mind is prevented from a perfect 
Attention to the Voice of Christ, but being weaned from 
all Things, but as they may be enjoyed in the Divine Will, 
the pure Light shines into the Soul, and where the Fruits 
of that Spirit which is of the World, are brought forth 
by many who profess to be led by the Spirit of Truth, 
and Cloudiness is felt to be gathering over the visible 
gathered Church, the Sincere in Heart who abide in true 
Stillness, and are exercised therein before the Lord for his 
Name's Sake, have a Knowledge of Christ in the Fellow- 
ship of his Sufferings, and inward Thankfulness is felt 
at Times, that through Divine Love, our own Wisdom is 
cast out, and that forward active Part in us subjected, 
which would rise and do something in the visible gathered 
Church, without the pure Leadings of the Spirit of Christ. 

While aught remains in us different from a perfect 
Resignation of our Wills, it is like a Seal to a Book wherein 
is written, that good, and acceptable, and perfect Will of 
God concerning us, Rom. xii. 2. but when our Minds 
entirely yield to Christ, that Silence is known, which 
followeth the opening of the last of the Seals, Rev. viii. i. 
In this Silence we learn abiding in the Divine Will, and 
there feel, that we have no Cause to promote but that 
only in which the Light of Life directs us in our Pro- 
ceedings, and that the alone Way to be useful in the 
Church of Christ, is to abide faithfully under the Lead- 
ings of his Holy Spirit in all Cases, and being preserved 
thereby in Purity of Heart, and Holiness of Conversation, 
a Testimony to the Purity of his Government may be 
held forth through us, to others. 

As my Mind hath been thus exercised, I have seen that 
to be active and busy in the visible gathered Church, 
without the Leadings of the Holy Spirit, is not only un- 
profitable, but tends to increase Dimness; and where 
Way is not opened to proceed in the Light of Truth, a 
Stop is felt by those who humbly attend to the Divine 
Leader, a Stop which in relation to good Order in the 
visible gathered Church, is of the greatest Consequence 
to be observed; thus Robert Barclay in his Treatise on 

John Woolman's Writings 215 

Discipline holds forth. Page 65, 68, 84. " That the 
Judgment or Conclusion of the Church or Congregation, 
is no further effectual as to the true End and Design 
thereof, but as such Judgment or Conclusion proceeds 
from the Spirit of God operating on their Minds who are 
sanctified in Christ Jesus." 

Now in this Stop I have learned the Necessity of wait- 
ing on the Lord in Humility, that the Works of all may 
be brought to the Light, and those to Judgment which 
are wrought in the Wisdom of this World; and have also 
seen, that in a Mind thoroughly subjected to the Power 
of the Cross, there is a Savour of Life to be felt, which 
evidently tends to gather Souls to God, while the greatest 
Works in the visible gathered Church brought forth in 
Man's Wisdom, remain to be unprofitable. 

Where People are divinely gathered into a Holy Fellow- 
ship, and faithfully abide under the Influence of that 
Spirit which leads into all Truth, they are the Light of the 
World, Mat. v. 14. Now holding this Profession, to me 
hath appeared weighty, even beyond what I can fully 
express, and what our blessed Lord seemed to have in 
View, when he proposed the Necessity of counting the 
Cost, before we begin to build. 

I trust there are many who at Times, under Divine 
Visitation, feel an inward Enquiry after God; and when 
such in the Simplicity of their Hearts mark the Lives 
of a People, who profess to walk by the Leadings of his 
Spirit, of what great Concernment is it that our Lights 
shine clear, that nothing of our Conduct carry a Con- 
tradiction to the Truth as it is in Jesus, or be a Means of 
prophaning his Holy Name, and be a Stumbling-block in 
the Way of those sincere Enquirers ! 

When such Seekers, who wearied with empty Forms, 
look toward uniting with us as a People, and behold 
active Members among us depart in their customary Way 
of Living, from that Purity of Life, which under humbling 
Exercises hath been opened before them, as the Way of 
the Lord's People, how mournful and discouraging is the 
Prospect! And how strongly doth such Unfaithfulness 
operate against the Spreading of the peaceable, har- 

2i6 John Woolman*s Writings 

monious Principle, and Testimony of Truth amongst 
Mankind ! 

In entering into that Life^ which is hid with Christ in 
God, we behold his peaceable Government, where the 
whole Family are governed by the same Spirit, and the 
doing to others as we would they should do unto us, groweth 
up as good Fruit from a good Tree; the Peace, Quietness, 
and harmonious Walking in this Government is beheld 
with humble Reverence to him who is the Author of it; 
and in partaking of the Spirit of Christ, we partake of 
that which labours, and suffers for the Increase of this 
peaceable Government among the Inhabitants of the 
World; and I have felt a Labour of long Continuance, 
that we, who profess this peaceable Principle, may be 
faithful Standard-bearers under the Prince of Peace, and 
that nothing of a defiling Nature, tending to Discord and 
Wars, may remain among us. 

May each of us query with ourselves, have the Treasures 
I possess been gathered in that Wisdom which is from 
above, so far as hath appeared to me? 

Have none of my Fellow Creatures an equitable Right 
to any Part which is called mine ? 

Have the Gifts, and Possessions received by me from 
others, been conveyed in a Way free from all Unrighteous- 
ness, so far as I have seen ? 

The Principle of Peace in which our Trust is only in 
the Lord, and our Minds weaned from a Dependance on 
the Strength of Armies, hath appeared to me very precious, 
and I often feel strong Desires, that we who profess this 
Principle, may so walk, as to give just Cause for none of 
our Fellow Creatures to be offended at us ; that our Lives 
may evidently manifest, that we are redeemed from that 
Spirit in which Wars are. Our blessed Saviour in point- 
ing out the Danger of so leaning on Man, as to neglect 
the Leadings of his Holy Spirit, said, Call izo Man your 
Father upon the Earth ; for one is your Father which is in 
Heaven, Mat. xxiii. 9. Where the Wisdom from above 
is faithfully followed, and therein we are entrusted with 
Substance, it is a Treasure committed to our Care in the 
Nature of an Inheritance, as an Inheritance from him, 

John Woolman's Writings 217 

who formed, and supports the World. Now in this 
Condition the true Enjoyment of the good Things of this 
Life is understood, and that Blessing felt, in which is 
real Safety; this is what I apprehend our blessed Lord 
had in View, when he pronounced. Blessed are the Meek, 
for they shall inherit the Earth. 

Selfish Worldly-minded Men may hold Lands in the 
selfish Spirit, and depending on the Strength of the out- 
ward Power, be perplexed with secret Uneasiness, lest 
the Injured should sometime overpower them, and that 
Measure meted to them, which they measure to others. 
Thus selfish Men may possess the Earth; but it is the 
Meek who inherit it, and enjoy it as an Inheritance from 
the Heavenly Father, free from all the Defilements, and 
Perplexities of Unrighteousness. 

Where Proceedings have been in that Wisdom which 
is from beneath, and inequitable Gain gathered by a Man, 
and left as a Gift to his Children, who being entangled 
by the same Worldly Spirit, have not attained to that 
Clearness of Light in which the Channels of Righteousness 
are opened, and Justice done to those who remain silent 
under Injuries : Here I have seen under humbling Exercise 
of Mind, that the Sins of the Fathers are embraced by 
the Children, and become their Sins, and thus of the Days 
of Tribulation, the Iniquities in the Fathers are visited 
upon these Children, who take hold of the Unrighteous- 
ness of their Fathers, and live in that Spirit in which those 
Iniquities were committed ; to which agreeth the Prophecy 
of Moses, concerning a rebellious People; They that are 
left of you shall -pine away in their Iniquities, in your 
Enemy^s Land, and in the Iniquities of their Fathers shall 
they pine away. Lev. xxvi. 39. and our blessed Lord in 
beholding the Hardness of Heart in that Generation, and 
feeling in himself, that they lived in the same Spirit in 
which the Prophets had been persecuted unto Death, 
signified, That the Blood of all the Prophets which was 
shed from the Foundation of the World, should be required 
of that Generation, from the Blood of Abel, unto the Blood 
of Zacharias, who perished between the Altar and the Temple, 
Luke xi. 51. 

21 8 John Woolman's Writings 

Tender Compassion fills my Heart towards my Fellow 
Creatures estranged from the harmonious Government of 
the Prince of Peace, and a Labour attends me, that they 
may be gathered to this peaceable Habitation. 

In being inwardly prepared to suffer Adversity for 
Christ's Sake, and weaned from a Dependance on the Arm 
of Flesh, we feel, that there is a Rest for the People of 
God, and that it stands in a perfect Resignation of our- 
selves to his Holy Will ; in this Condition, all our Wants and 
Desires are bounded by pure Wisdom, and our Minds 
wholly attentive to the Counsel of Christ inwardly com- 
municated, which hath appeared to me as a Habitation 
of Safety for the Lord's People, in Times of outward 
Commotion and Trouble, and Desires from the Fountain 
of pure Love, are opened in me, to invite my Brethren 
and Fellow Creatures to feel for, and seek after that 
which gathers the Mind into it. 

John Woolman. 

Mount-Holly, New- Jersey, 
4th Month 1772. 





Printed by Mary Hinde. 

Q 402 



On loving out Neighbours as ourselves 

When we love the Lord with all our Hearts, and his 
Creatures in his Love, we are then preserv'd in Tender- 
ness both toward Mankind and the Animal Creation; 
but if another Spirit gets Room in our Minds, and we 
follow it in our Proceedings, we are then in the Way of 
disordering the Affairs of Society. 

If a Man successful in Business expends Part of his 
Income in Things of no real Use, while the Poor employed 
by him pass through great Difficulties in getting the 
Necessaries of Life, this requires his serious Attention. 

If several principal Men in Business unite in setting 
the Wages of those who work for Hire, and therein have 
Regard to a Profit to themselves answerable to unneces- 
sary Expence in their Families, while the Wages of the 
other on a moderate Industry will not afford a comfortable 
Living for their Families, and a proper Education for their 
Children, this is like laying a Temptation in the Way of 
some to strive for a Place higher than they are in, when 
they have not Stock sufficient for it. 

Now I feel a Concern in the Spring of pure Love, that 
all who have Plenty of outward Substance, may Example 
others in the right Use of Things; may carefully look 
into the Condition of poor People, and beware of exacting 
on them with Regard to their Wages. 

While hired Labourers, by moderate Industry, through 
the Divine Blessing, may live comfortably, raise up 
Families, and give them suitable Education, it appears 
reasonable for them to be content with their Wages. 

If they who have Plenty love their Fellow Creatures 


2 22 John Woolman's Writings 

in that Love which is Divine, and in all their Proceedings 
have an equal Regard to the Good of Mankind universally, 
their Place in Society is a Place of Caje, an Office requiring 
Attention, and the more we possess, the greater is our 
Trust, and with an Increase of Treasure, an Increase of 
Care becomes necessary. 

When our Will is subject to the Will of God, and in 
relation to the Things of this World, we have nothing 
in View, but a comfortable Living equally with the rest 
of our Fellow Creatures, then outward Treasures are no 
farther desirable than as we feel a Gift in our Minds 
equal to the Trust, and Strength to act as dutiful Children 
in his Service, who hath formed all Mankind, and ap- 
pointed a Subsistence for us in this World. 

A Desire for Treasures on any other Motive, appears to 
be against that Command of our blessed Saviour, Lay not 
up for yourselves Treasures here on Earth, Mat. vi. 19. 

He forbids not laying up in the Summer against the 
Wants of Winter; nor doth he teach us to be slothful 
in that which properly relates to our being in this World ; 
but in this Prohibition he puts in yourselves, Lay not up 
for yourselves Treasures here on Earth. 

Now in the pure Light, this Language is understood, 
for in the Love of Christ there is no Respect of Persons; 
and while we abide in his Love, we live not to ourselves, 
but to him who died for us. And as we are thus united 
in Spirit to Christ, we are engag(3d to labour in promoting 
that Work in the Earth for which he suffer'd. 

In this State of Mind our Desires are, that every honest 
Member in Society may have a Portion of Treasure, and 
Share of Trust, answerable to that Gift, with which our 
Heavenly Father hath gifted us. 

In great Treasure, there is a great Trust. A great 
Trust require th great Care. But the laborious Mind 
wants Rest. 

A pious Man is content to do a Share of Business in 
Society, answerable to the Gifts with which he is endowed, 
while the Channels of Business are free from Unrighteous- 
ness, but is careful lest at any Time his Heart be over- 

John Woolman's Writings 223 

In the harmonious Spirit of Society Christ is all in all, 
Col. iii. II. 

Here it is that old Things are past away, all Things are 
new, all Things are of God, 2 Cor. v. 17, 18, and the Desire 
for outward Riches is at an End. 

They of low Degree who have small Gifts, enjoy their 
Help who have large Gifts ; those with their small Gifts, 
have a small degree of Care, while these with their large 
Gifts, have a large degree of Care: And thus to abide in 
the Love of Christ, and enjoy a comfortable Living in this 
World is all that is aimed at by those Members in Society, 
to whom Christ is made Wisdom and Righteousness. 

But when they who have much Treasure, are not 
faithful Stewards of the Gifts of God, great Difficulties 
attend it. 

Now this Matter hath deeply affected my Mind. The 
Lord, through merciful Chastisements, hath given me a 
Feeling of that Love, in which the Harmony of Society 
standeth, and a Sight of the Growth of that Seed which 
bringeth forth Wars and great Calamities in the World, 
and a Labour attends me to open it to others. 

Now to act with Integrity, according to that Strength 
of Mind and Body with which our Creator hath endowed 
each of us, appears necessary for all, and he who thus 
stands in the lowest Station, appears to be entitled to as 
comfortable and convenient a Living, as he whose Gifts 
of Mind are greater, and whose Cares are more extensive. 

If some endowed with strong Understandings as Men, 
abide not in the harmonious State, in which we love our 
Neighbours as ourselves, but walk in that Spirit in which 
the Children of this World are wise in their Generation; 
these by the Strength of Contrivance may sometimes 
gather great Treasure, but the Wisdom of this World is 
Foolishness with God; and if we gather Treasures in 
Worldly Wisdom, we lay up Treasures for ourselves ; and 
great Treasures managed in any other Spirit, than the 
Spirit of Truth, disordereth the Affairs of Society, for 
hereby the good Gifts of God in this outward Creation 
are turned into the Channels of Worldly Honour, and 
frequently applied to support Luxury, while the Wages 

2 24 John Woolman's Writings 

of; poor Labourers are such, that with moderate Industry 
and Frugality they may not live comfortably, raise up 
Families, and give them suitable Education, but through 
the Streightness of their Condition, are often drawn on 
to labour under Weariness, to toil through Hardships 
themselves, and frequently to oppress those useful 
Animals with which we are intrusted. 

From Age to Age, throughout all Ages, Divine Love is 
that alone, in which Dominion has been, is, and will be 
rightly conducted. 

In this the Endowments of Men are so employed, that 
the Friend and the Governor are united in one, and 
oppressive Customs come to an End. 

Riches in the Hands of Individuals in Society, is 
attended with some degree of Power; and so far as 
Power is put forth separate from pure Love, so far the 
Government of the Prince of Peace is interrupted; and 
as we know not that our Children after us will dwell in 
that State in which Power is rightly applied, to lay up 
Riches for them appears to be against the Nature of his 

The Earth, through the Labour of Men under the 
Blessing of him who formed it, yieldeth a Supply for the 
Inhabitants from Generation to Generation, and they 
who walk in the pure Light, their Minds are prepared 
to taste and relish not only those Blessings which are 
spiritual, but also feel a Sweetness and Satisfaction in a 
right Use of the good Gifts of God in the visible Creation. 

Here we see that Man's Happiness stands not in great 
Possessions, but in a Heart devoted to follow Christ, in 
that Use of Things, where Customs contrary to universal 
Love have no Power over us. 

In this State our Hearts are prepared to trust in God, 
and our Desires for our Children and Posterity are, that 
they, with the rest of Mankind, in Ages to come, may 
be of that Number, of whom he hath said, / will be a 
Father to them, and they shall be my Sons and Daughters, 
2 Cor. vi. i8. 

When Wages in a fruitful Land bear so small a Pro- 
portion to the Necessaries of Life, that poor honest People 

John Woolman's Writings 225 

who have Families cannot by a moderate Industry attain 
to a comfortable Living, and give their Children sufficient 
Learning, but must either labour to a degree of Oppres- 
sion, or else omit that which appears to be a Duty. 

While this is the Case with the Poor, there is an Inclina- 
tion in the Minds of most People, to prepare at least so 
much Treasure for their Children, that they with Care 
and moderate Industry may live free from these Hard- 
ships which the Poor pass through. 

Now this Subject requireth our serious Consideration: 
To labour that our Children may be put in a Way to live 
comfortably, appears in itself to be a Duty, so long as 
these our Labours are consistent with universal Righteous- 
ness; but if in striving to shun Poverty, we do not walk 
in that State where Christ is our Life, then we wander; 
He that hath the Son, hath Life, i John v. 12. This Life 
is the Light of Men, i John i. 4. If we walk not in this 
Light, we walk in Darkness, and he that walketh in Dark- 
ness, knoweth not whither he goeth, John xii. 35. 

To keep to right Means in labouring to attain a right 
End is necessary: If in striving to shun Poverty, we 
strive only in that State where Christ is the Light of our 
Life, our Labours will stand in the true Harmony of 
Society; but if People are confident that the End aimed 
at is good, and in this Confidence pursue it so eagerly, as 
not to wait for the Spirit of Truth to lead them, then 
they come to Loss. Christ is given to be a Leader and 
Commander of the People, Isaiah Iv. 4. Again; The Lord 
shall guide thee continually, Isaiah Iviii. 12. Again; Lord, 
thou wilt ordain Peace for us, for thou also hast wrought 
all our Works in us, Isaiah xxvi. 12. 

In the Lord have we Righteousness and Strength, Isaiah 
xlv. 24. 

In this State our Minds are preserved watchful in 
following the Leadings of his Spirit in all our Proceedings 
in this World, and a Care is felt for a Reformation in 
general. That our own Posterity, with the rest of Man- 
kind in succeeding Ages, may not be entangled by oppres- 
sive Customs, transmitted to them through our Hands; 
but if People in the Narrowness of natural Love, are 

2 26 John Woolman's Writings 

afraid that their Children will be oppressed by the Rich, 
and through an eager Desire to get Treasures, depart 
from the pure Leadings of Truth in one Case, though it 
may seem to be a small Matter, yet the Mind even in 
that small Matter may be embolden'd to continue in a 
Way of Proceeding, without waiting for the Divine 

Thus People may grow expert in Business, wise in the 
Wisdom of this World, retain a fair Reputation amongst 
Men, and yet being Strangers to the Voice of Christ, the 
safe Leader of his Flock, the Treasures thus gotten, may 
be like Snares to the Feet of their Posterity. 

Now to keep faithful to the pure Counsellor, and under 
trying Circumstances suffer Adversity for Righteousness 
Sake, in this there is a Reward. 

If we, being poor, are hardly dealt with by those who 
are rich, and under this Difficulty are frugal and in- 
dustrious, and in true Humility open our Case to them 
who oppress us, this may reach the pure Witness in their 
Minds; and though we should remain under Difficulties 
as to the outward, yet if we abide in the Love of Christ, 
all will work for our Good. 

When we feel what it is to suffer in the true suffering 
State, then we experience the Truth of those Expressions, 
that, as the Sufferings of Christ abound in us, so our Con- 
solation aboundeth by Christ, 2 Cor. i. 5. 

But if poor People who are hardly dealt with, do not 
attain to the true suffering State, do not labour in true 
Love with those who deal hardly with them, but envy 
their outward Greatness, murmur in their Hearts because 
of their own Poverty, and strive in the Wisdom of this 
World to get Riches for themselves and their Children; 
this is like wandering in the Dark. 

If we who are of a middle Station between Riches and 
Poverty, are affected at Times with the Oppressions of the 
Poor, and feel a tender Regard for our Posterity after us, 
how necessary is it that we wait for the pure Counsel 
of Truth! 

Many have seen the Hardships of the Poor, felt an eager 
Desire that their Children may be put in a Way to escape 

John Woolman's Writings 227 

these Hardships; but how few have continued in that 
pure Love which openeth our Understandings to proceed 
rightly under these Difficulties ! 

How few have faithfully followed that Holy Leader 
who prepares his People to labour for the Restoration of 
true Harmony amongst our Fellow Creatures! 

In the pure Gospel Spirit we walk by Faith and not by 
Sight, 2 Cor. V. 7. 

In the Obedience of Faith we die to the Narrowness of 
Self-love, and our Life being hid with Christ in God, our 
Hearts are enlarg'd toward Mankind universally; but 
in departing from the true Light of Life, many in striving 
to get Treasures have stumbled upon the dark Mountains. 

Now that Purity of Life which proceeds from Faithful- 
ness in following the Spirit of Truth, that State where 
our Minds are devoted to serve God, and all our Wants 
are bounded by his Wisdom, this Habitation has often 
been open'd before me as a Place of Retirement for the 
Children of the Light, where we may stand separated 
from that which disordereth and confuseth the Affairs 
of Society, and where we may have a Testimony of our 
Innocence in the Hearts of those who behold us. 

Through departing from the Truth as it is in Jesus, 
through introducing Ways of Life attended with un- 
necessary Expences, many Wants have arisen, the Minds 
of People have been employ'd in studying to get Wealth, 
and in this Pursuit some departing from Equity, have 
retain'd a Profession of Religion; others have look'd at 
their Example, and thereby been strengthened to proceed 
further in the same Way: Thus many have encourag'd 
the Trade of taking Men from Africa, and selling them as 

It hath been computed that near One Hundred Thousand 
Negroes have of late Years been taken annually from that 
Coast, by Ships employed in the English Trade. 

As I have travell'd on religious Visits in some Parts of 
America, I have seen many of these People under the 
Command of Overseers, in a painful Servitude. 

I have beheld them as Gentiles under People professing 
Christianity, not only kept ignorant of the Holy Scriptures, 

2 28 John Woolman's Writings 

but under great Provocations to Wrath; of whom it may 
truly be said, They that rule over them make them to howl, 
and the Holy Name is abundantly blasphemed, Isaiah Hi. 5. 

Where Children are taught to read the Sacred Writings, 
while young, and exampled in Meekness and Humility, 
it is often helpful to them; nor is this any more than a 
Debt due from us to a succeeding Age. 

But where Youth are pinched for want of the Neces- 
saries of Life, forced to labour hard under the harsh 
Rebukes of rigorous Overseers, and many Times endure 
unmerciful Whippings : In such an Education, how great 
are the Disadvantages they lie under! And how forcibly 
do these Things work against the Increase of the Govern- 
ment of the Prince of Peace ! 

Humphrey Smith, in his Works, p. 125, speaking of the 
tender Feelings of the Love of God in his Heart when he 
was a Child, said, " By the violent wrathful Nature that 
ruled in others, was my Quietness disturbed, and Anger 
begotten in me toward them, yet that of God in me was 
not wholly overcome, but his Love was felt in my Heart, 
and great was my Grief when the Earthly-mindedness 
and wrathful Nature so provoked me, that I was estranged 
from it. 

" And this I write as a Warning to Parents and others, 
that in the Fear of the living God, you may train up the 
Youth, and may not be a Means of bringing them into 
such Alienation." 

Many are the Vanities and Luxuries of the present Age, 
and in labouring to support a Way of living conformable 
to the present World, the Departure from that Wisdom 
that is pure and peaceable hath been great. 

Under the Sense of a deep Revolt, and an overflowing 
Stream of Unrighteousness, my Life has been often a 
Life of Mourning, and tender Desires are raised in me, 
that the Nature of this Practice may be laid to Heart. 

I have read some Books wrote by People who were 
acquainted with the Manner of getting Slaves in Africa. 

I have had verbal Relations of this Nature from several 
Negroes brought from Africa, who have learn'd to talk 

John Woolman's Writings 229 

I have sundry Times heard Englishmen speak on this 
Subject, who have been at Africa on this Business; and 
from all these Accounts it appears evident that great 
Violence is committed, and much Blood shed in Africa 
in getting Slaves. 

When three or four Hundred Slaves are put in the 
Hold of a Vessel in a hot Climate, their Breathing soon 
affects the Air. Were that Number of free People to go 
Passengers with all Things proper for their Voyage, there 
would Inconvenience arise from their Number; but Slaves 
are taken by Violence, and frequently endeavour to kill 
the white People, that they may return to their Native 
Land. Hence they are frequently kept under some Sort 
of Confinement, by Means of which a Scent ariseth in the 
Hold of a Ship, and Distempers often break out amongst 
them, of which many die. Of this tainted Air in the 
Hold of Ships freighted with Slaves, I have had several 
Accounts, some in Print, and some verbal, and all agree 
that the Scent is grievous. When these People are sold 
in America, and in the Islands, they are made to labour in 
a Manner more servile and constant, than that which 
they were used to at Home, that with Grief, with different 
Diet from what has been common with them, and with 
hard Labour, some Thousands are computed to die every 
Year, in what is called the Seasoning. 

Thus it appears evident, that great Numbers of these 
People are brought every Year to an untimely End; 
many of them being such who never injured us« 

Wlien the Innocent suffer under hard-hearted Men, 
even unto Death, and the Channels of Equity are so 
obstructed, that the Cause of the Sufferers is not judged 
in Righteousness, the Land is polluted with Blood, Numb. 
XXXV. 33. 

When Blood hath been shed unrighteously, and remains 
unattoned for, the Cry thereof is very piercing. 

Under the humbling Dispensations of Divine Pro- 
vidence, this Cry hath deeply affected my Heart, and I 
feel a Concern to open, as I may be enabled, that which 
lieth heavy on my Mind. 

When the Iniquity of the House of Israel and of Judah 

230 John Woolman's Writings 

was exceeding great, when the Land was defiled with Blood, 
and the City full of Perverseness, Ezek. ix. 9. some were 
found sighing and crying for the Abominations of the Times, 
Ezek. ix. 4. and such who live under a right Feeling of 
our Condition as a Nation^ these I trust will be sensible 
that the Lord at this Day doth call to Mourning, though 
many are ignorant of it. So powerful are bad Customs 
when they become general, that People growing bold 
thro' the Examples one of another, have often been 
unmoved at the most serious Warnings. 

Our blessed Saviour speaking of the People of the old 
World, said, They eat, they drank, they married, and were 
given in Marriage, until the Day that Noah went into the 
Ark, and the Flood came and destroyed them all, Luke 
xvii. 27. 

The like he spake concerning the People of Sodom, who 
are also represented by the Prophet as haughty, luxurious, 
and oppressive; This was the Sin of Sodom, Pride, Fulness 
of Bread, and Abundance of Idleness was found in her, 
and in her Daughters ; neither did she strengthen the Hands 
of the Poor and Needy, Ezek. xvi. 49. 

Now in a Revolt so deep as this, when much Blood 
has been shed unrighteously, in carrying on the Slave 
Trade, and in supporting the Practice of keeping Slaves, 
which at this Day is unattoned for, and crieth from the 
Earth, and from the Seas against the Oppressor ! 

While this Practice is continued, and under a great 
Load of Guilt there is more Unrighteousness committed, 
the State of Things is very moving ! 

There is a Love which stands in Nature, and a Parent 
beholding his Child in Misery, hath a Feeling of the 
Affliction; but in Divine Love the Heart is enlarged 
towards Mankind universally, and prepar'd to sym- 
pathize with Strangers, though in the lowest Station in 

Of this the Prophet appears to have had a Feeling, 
when he said. Have we not all one Father ? Hath not one 
God created us ? Why then do we deal treacherously every 
Man with his Brother, in prophaning the Covenant of our 
Fathers ? Mai. ii. 10. 

John Woolman's Writings 231 

He who of old heard the Groans of the Children of 
Israel under the hard Task-masters in Egypt, I trust hath 
looked down from his Holy Habitation on the Miseries 
of these deeply oppress'd People. Many Lives have 
been shorten' d through extreme Oppression while they 
labour'd to support Luxury and Worldly Greatness; 
and tho' many People in outward Prosperity may 
think little of those Things, yet the gracious Creator 
hath Regard to the Cries of the Innocent, however un- 
noticed by Men. 

The Lord in the Riches of his Goodness is leading some 
into the Feeling of the Condition of this People, who 
cannot rest without labouring as their Advocate; of 
which in some Measure I have had Experience, for, in 
the Movings of his Love in my Heart, these poor Sufferers 
have been brought near to me. 

The unoffending Aged and Infirm made to labour too 
hard, kept on a Diet less comfortable than their weak 
State required, and exposed to great Difficulties under 
hard-hearted Men, to whose Sufferings I have often been 
a Witness, and under the Heart-melting Power of Divine 
Love, their Misery hath felt to me like the Misery of my 

Innocent Youth taken by Violence from their Native 
Land, from their Friends and Acquaintance; put on 
board Ships with Hearts laden with Sorrow; exposed 
to great Hardships at Sea; placed under People, where 
their Lives have been attended with great Provocation to 
Anger and Revenge. 

With the Condition of these Youth, my Mind hath 
often been affected, as with the Afflictions of my Children, 
and in a Feeling of the Misery of these People, and of 
that great Offence which is minister'd to them, my Tears 
have been often poured out before the Lord. 

That Holy Spirit which affected my Heart when I was 
a Youth, I trust is often felt by the Negroes in their Native 
Land, inclining their Minds to that which is righteous, and 
had the professed Followers of Christ in all their Conduct 
towards them, manifested a Disposition answerable to the 
pure Principle in their Hearts, how might the Holy Name 

232 John Woolman's Writings 

have been honoured amongst the Gentiles, and how might 
we have rejoiced in the fulfilling of that Prophecy, I the 
Lord love Judgment, I hate Robbery for Burnt-offerings, 
and I will direct their Work in Truth, and make an ever- 
lasting Covenant with them. Their Seed shall be known 
amongst the Gentiles, and their Offspring amongst the People : 
All that see them shall acknowledge them, that they are the 
Seed which the Lord hath blessed, Isaiah Ixi. 8, 9. 

But in the present State of Things, how contrary is 
this Practice to that meek Spirit, in which our Saviour 
laid down his Life for us, that all the Ends of the Earth 
might know Salvation in his Name ! 

How are the Sufferings of our blessed Redeemer set at 
nought, and his Name blasphemed amongst the Gentiles, 
through the unrighteous Proceedings of his profess'd 
Followers ! 

My Mind hath often been affected, even from the Days 
of my Youth, under a Sense of that marvellous Work, 
for which God, in infinite Goodness, sent his Son into the 

The opening of that Spring of living Waters, which the 
true Believers in Christ experience, by which they are 
redeemed from Pride and Covetousness, and brought 
into a State of Meekness, where their Hearts are enlarged 
in true Love toward their Fellow Creatures universally; 
this Work to me has been precious, and the Spreading 
the Knowledge of the Truth amongst the Gentiles been 
very desirable. And the professed Followers of Christ 
joining in Customs evidently unrighteous, which mani- 
festly tend to stir up Wrath, and increase Wars and 
Desolations, hath often covered my Mind with Sorrow. 

If we bring this Matter home, and as Job proposed to 
his Friends, Put our Soul in their Soul's stead, Job xvi. 4. 

If we consider ourselves and our Children as exposed 
to the Hardships which these People lie under in support- 
ing an imaginary Greatness. 

Did we in such Case behold an Increase of Luxury and 
Superfluity amongst our Oppressors, and therewith felt 
an Increase of the Weight of our Burdens, and expected 
our Posterity to groan under Oppression after us. 

John Woolman's Writings 233 

Under all this Misery, had we none to plead our Cause, 
nor any Hope of Relief from Man, how would our Cries 
ascend to the God of the Spirits of all Flesh, who judgeth 
the World in Righteousness, and in his own Time is a 
Refuge for the Oppressed! 

If they who thus afflicted us, continued to lay Claim 
to Religion, and were assisted in their Business by others, 
esteemed pious People, who through a Friendship with 
them strengthened their Hands in Tyranny. 

In such a State, when we were Hunger-bitten, and could 
not have sufficient Nourishment but saw them in fulness 
pleasing their Taste with Things fetched from far: 

When we were wearied with Labour, denied the Liberty 
to rest, and saw them spending their Time at Ease: 
When Garments answerable to our Necessities were 
denied us, while we saw them cloathed in that which was 
costly and delicate: 

Under such Affliction, how would these painful Feelings 
rise up as Witnesses against their pretended Devotion! 
And if the Name of their Religion was mention'd in our 
Hearing, how would it sound in our Ears like a Word 
which signified Self-exaltation, and Hardness of Heart! 

When a Trade is carried on, productive of much Misery, 
and they who suffer by it are some Thousands Miles off, 
the Danger is the greater, of not laying their Sufferings 
to Heart. 

In procuring Slaves on the Coast of Africa, many 
Children are stolen privately; Wars also are encouraged 
amongst the Negroes, but all is at a great Distance. 

Many Groans arise from dying Men, which we hear not. 

Many Cries are uttered by Widows and Fatherless 
Children, which reach not our Ears. 

Many Cheeks are wet with Tears, and Faces sad with 
unutterable Grief, which we see not. 

Cruel Tyranny is encouraged. The Hands of Robbers 
are strengthened, and Thousands reduced to the most 
abject Slavery, who never injured us. 

Were we for the Term of one Year only to be an Eye- 
witness to what passeth in getting these Slaves : 

Was the Blood which is there shed to be sprinkled on 
our Garments: 

2 34 John Woolman's Writings 

Were the poor Captives bound with Thongs, heavy 
laden with Elephants Teeth, to pass before our Eyes on 
their Way to the Sea: 

Were their bitter Lamentations Day after Day to ring 
in our Ears, and their mournful Cries in the Night to 
hinder us from Sleeping : 

Were we to hear the Sound of the Tumult when the 
Slaves on board the Ships attempt to kill the English, 
and behold the Issue of those bloody Conflicts : 

What pious Man could be a Witness to these Things, 
and see a Trade carried on in this Manner, without being 
deeply affected with Sorrow? 

Through abiding in the Love of Christ we feel a Tender- 
ness in our Hearts toward our Fellow Creatures, en- 
tangled in oppressive Customs ; and a Concern so to walk, 
that our Conduct may not be a Means of strength'ning 
them in Error. 

It was the Command of the Lord through Moses, Thou 
shall not suffer Sin upon thy Brother : Thou shall in any- 
wise rebuke thy Brother, and shall not suffer Sin upon him, 
Lev. xix. 17. 

Again; Keep far from a false Matter ; and the Innocent 
and Righteous slay thou not, Exod. xxiii. 7. 

The Prophet Isaiah mentions Oppression as that which 
the true Church in Time of outward Quiet should not only 
be clear of, but should be far from it ; Thou shall he far 
from Oppression, Isaiah liv. 14. Now these Words, far 
from, appear to have an extensive Meaning, and to 
convey Instruction in regard to that of which Solomon 
speaks. Though Hand join in Kand, the Wicked shall not 
go unpunished. Pro v. xvi. 5. 

It was a Complaint against one of old. When thou sawest 
a Thief, thou consentedst with him, Psal. 1. 18. 

The Prophet Jeremiah represents the Degrees of Pre- 
paration toward Idolatrous Sacrifice, in the Similitude of 
a Work carried on by Children, Men, and Women: The 
Children gather Wood, the Fathers kindle the Fire, and the 
Women knead the Dough to bake Cakes for the Queen of 
Heaven, Jer. vii. 18. 

It was a complaint of the Lord against Israel, through 

John Woolman's Writings 235 

his Prophet Ezekiel, that they strengthen'd the Hands of 
the Wicked, and made the Hearts of the Righteous sad, 
Ezek. xiii. 12. 

Some Works of Iniquity carried on by the People were 
represented by the Prophet Hosea, in the Similitude of 
Ploughing, Reaping, and eating the Fruit; You have 
ploughed Wickedness, reaped Iniquity, eaten the Fruit of 
Lying, because thou didst trust in thy own Way, to the 
Multitude of thy mighty Men, Hosea x. 13. 

I have felt great Distress of Mind since I came on this 
Island, on Account of the Members of our Society being 
mixed with the World in various Sorts of Business and 
Traffick, carried on in impure Channels, Great is the 
Trade to Africa for Slaves; and in loading these Ships 
abundance of People are employ'd in the Manufactories. 

Friends in early Time refused, on a religious Principle, 
to make or trade in Superfluities, of which we have many 
large Testimonies on Record, but for want of Faithfulness 
some gave way, even some whose Examples were of Note 
in Society, and from thence others took more Liberty: 
Members of our Society worked in Superfluities, and 
bought and sold them, and thus Dimness of Sight came 
over many. At length, Friends got into the Use of 
some Superfluities in Dress, and in the Furniture of their 
Houses, and this hath spread from less to more, till 
Superfluity of some Kind is common amongst us. 

In this declining State many look at the Example one 
of another, and too much neglect the pure Feeling of 
Truth. Of late Years a deep Exercise hath attended 
my Mind, that Friends may dig deep, may carefully cast 
forth the loose Matter, and get down to the Rock, the 
sure Foundation, and there hearken to that Divine Voice 
which gives a clear and certain Sound. 

And I have felt in that which doth not deceive, that if 
Friends who have known the Truth, keep in that Tender- 
ness of Heart, where all Views of outward Gain are given 
up, and their Trust is only on the Lord, he will graciously 
lead some to be Patterns of deep Self-denial, in Things 
relating to Trade, and handicraft Labour; and that some 
who have Plenty of the Treasures of this World, will 
R 402 

236 John Woolman's Writings 

example in a plain frugal Life, and pay Wages to such 
whom they may hire, more liberally than is now customary 
in some Places. 

The Prophet, speaking of the true Church, said, Thy 
People also shall be all righteous. 

Of the Depth of this Divine Work several have spoken. 

John Gratton, in his Journal, p. 45, said, " The Lord is 
my Portion, I shall not want. He hath wrought all my 
Works in me. I am nothing but what I am in him." 

Gilbert Latey, through the powerful Operations of the 
Spirit of Christ in his Soul, was brought to that Depth 
of Self-denial, that he could not join with that proud 
Spirit in other People, which inclined them to want 
Vanities and Superfluities. This Friend was often 
amongst the chief Rulers of the Nation in Times of 
Persecution, and it appears by the Testimony of Friends, 
that his Dwelling was so evidently in the pure Life of 
Truth, that in his Visits to those great Men, he found a 
Place in their Minds; and that King James the Second, 
in the Times of his Troubles, made particular Mention in 
a very respectful Manner of what Gilbert once said to him. 

The said Gilbert found a Concern to write an Epistle, 
in which are these Expressions; " Fear the Lord, ye Men 
of all Sorts, Trades, and Callings, and leave off all the 
Evil that is in them, for the Lord is grieved with all 
the Evils used in your Employments which you are 
exercised in. 

" It is even a Grief to see how you are Servants to Sin, 
and Instruments of Satan." See his Works, Page 42, etc. 
George Fox, in an Epistle, writes thus: " Friends, stand 
in the Eternal Power of God, Witness against the Pomps 
and Vanities of this World. 

" Such Tradesmen who stand as Witnesses in the 
Power of God, cannot fulfil the People's Minds in these 
Vanities, and therefore they are offended at them. 

" Let all trust in the Lord, and wait patiently on him; 
for when Trust first broke forth in London, many Trades- 
men could not take so much Money in their Shops for 
some Time, as would buy them Bread and Water, because 
they withstood the World's Ways, Fashions, and Customs ; 

John Woolman's Writings 237 

yet by their patient waiting on the Lord in their good 
Life and Conversation, they answer'd the Truth in 
People's Hearts, and thus their Business increased." 
Book of Doctrinals, Page 824. 

Now Christ our Holy Leader graciously continueth to 
open the Understandings of his People, and as Circum- 
stances alter from Age to Age, some who are deeply 
baptized into a Feehng of the State of Things, are led by 
his Holy Spirit into Exercises in some respect different 
from those which attended the Faithful in foregoing Ages, 
and through the Constrainings of pure Love, are engaged 
to open the Feelings they have to others. 

In faithfully following Christ, the Heart is weaned from 
the Desires of Riches, and we are led into a Life so plain 
and simple, that a little doth suffice, and thus the Way 
openeth to deny ourselves, under all the tempting Allure- 
ments of that Gain, which we know is the Gain of 

The Apostle speaking on this Subject, asketh this 
Question; What Fellowship hath Righteousness with Un- 
righteousness ? 2 Cor. vi. 14. And again saith. Have no 
Fellowship with the unfruitful Works of Darkness, but 
rather reprove them, Ephes. v. 11. Again, Be not Partaker 
of other Men's Sins, keep thyself pure, i Tim. v. 22. 

Where People through the Power of Christ are throughly 
settled in a right Use of Things, freed from all unneces- 
sary Care and Expence, the Mind in this true Resigna- 
tion is at Liberty from the Bands of a narrow Self- 
Interest, to attend from Time to Time on the Moving s 
of his Spirit upon us, though he leads into that through 
which our Faith is closely tried. 

The Language of Christ is pure, and to the Pure in 
Heart this pure Language is intelligible; but in the Love 
of Money, the Mind being intent on Gain, is too full of 
human Contrivance to attend to it. 

It appeareth evident, that some Channels of Trade are 
defiled with Unrighteousness, that the Minds of many are 
intent on getting Treasures to support a Life, in which 
there are many unnecessary Expences. 

And I feel a living Concern attend my Mind, that under 

238 John Woolman's Writings 

these Difficulties we may humbly follow our Heavenly 
Shepherd, who graciously regardeth his Flock, and is 
willing and able to supply us both inwardly and out- 
wardly with clean Provender, that hath been winnowed 
with the Shovel and the Fan, where we may sow to our- 
selves in Righteousness, reap in Mercy, Hosea x. 12. and not 
be defiled with the Works of Iniquity. 

Where Customs contrary to pure Wisdom are trans- 
mitted to Posterity, it appears to be an Injury committed 
against them ; and I often feel tender Compassion toward 
a young Generation, and Desires that their Difficulties 
may not be increased through Unfaithfulness in us of 
the present Age. 


On a Sailor's LIFE 

In the Trade to Africa for Slaves, and in the Management 
of Ships going on these Voyages, many of our Lads and 
young Men have a considerable Part of their Education. 

Now what pious Father beholding his Son placed in one 
of these Ships, to learn the Practice of a Mariner, could 
forbear mourning over him ? 

Where Youth are exampled in Means of getting Money 
so full of Violence, and used to exercise such Cruelties on 
their Fellow Creatures, the Disadvantage to them in their 
Education is very great. 

But I feel it in my Mind to write concerning the Sea- 
faring Life in general. 

In the Trade carried on from the West-Indies, and from 
some Part of the Continent, the Produce of the Labour of 
Slaves is a considerable Part. 

And Sailors who are frequently at Ports where Slaves 
abound, and converse often with People who oppress 
without the Appearance of Remorse, and often with 
Sailors employ'd in the Slave Trade, how powerfully do 
these evil Examples spread amongst the Seafaring Youth I 

I have had many Opportunities to feel and understand 
the general State of the Seafaring Life amongst us, and 
my Mind hath often been sad on Accoimt of so many 
Lads and young Men been trained up amidst so great 

Under the humbling Power of Christ I have seen, that 
if the Leadings of his Holy Spirit were faithfully attended 
to by his professed Followers in general, the Heathen 
Nations would be exampled in Righteousness. A less 
Number of People would be employed on the Seas. The 
Channels of Trade would be more free from Defilement. 


240 John Woolman's Writings 

Fewer People would be employed in Vanities and Super- 

The Inhabitants of Cities would be less in Number. 

Those who have much Lands would become Fathers to 
the Poor. 

More People would be employed in the sweet Employ- 
ment of Husbandry, and in the Path of pure Wisdom, 
Labour would be an agreeable, healthful Employment. 

In the Opening of these Things in my Mind, I feel a 
living Concern that we who have felt Divine Love in our 
Hearts may faithfully abide in it, and like good Soldiers 
endure Hardness for Christ's Sake. 

He, our blessed Saviour, exhorting his Followers to 
love one another, adds. As I have loved you. John xiii. 34. 

He loved Lazarus, yet in his Sickness did not heal him, 
but left him to endure the Pains of Death, that in restoring 
him to Life, the People might be confirmed in the true 

He loved his Disciples, but sent them forth on a Message 
attended with great Difficulty, amongst Hard-hearted 
People, some of whom would think that in killing them 
they did God Service. 

So deep is Divine Love, that in stedfastly abiding in 
it, we are prepar'd to deny ourselves of all that Gain 
which is contrary to pure Wisdom, and to follow Christ, 
even under Contempt, and through Sufferings. 

While Friends were kept truly humble, and walked 
according to the Purity of our Principles, the Divine 
Witness in many Hearts was reached ; but when a Worldly 
Spirit got Entrance, therewith came in Luxuries and 
Superfluities, and spread by little and little, even among 
the foremost Rank in Society, and from thence others 
took Liberty in that Way more abundantly. 

In the Continuation of these Things from Parents to 
Children, there were many Wants to supply, even Wants 
unknown to Friends while they faithfully followed Christ. 
And in striving to supply these Wants many have exacted 
on the Poor, many have enter'd on Employments, in 
which they often labour in upholding Pride and Vanity. 
Many have looked on one another, been strengthen'd in 

John Woolman's Writings 241 

these Things, one by the Example of another, and as to 
the pure Divine Seeing, Dimness hath come over many, 
and the Channels of true Brotherly Love been obstructed. 

People may have no intention to oppress, yet by enter- 
ing on expensive Ways of Life, their Minds may be so 
entangled therein, and so engag'd to support expensive 
Customs, as to be estranged from the pure sympathizing 

As I have travell'd in England, I have had a tender 
Feeling of the Condition of poor People, some of whom 
though honest and industrious, have nothing to spare 
toward paying for the Schooling of their Children. 

There is a Proportion between Labour and the Neces- 
saries of Life, and in true Brotherly Love the Mind is 
open to feel after the Necessities of the Poor. 

Amongst the Poor there are some that are weak through 
Age, and others of a weakly Nature, who pass through 
Straits in very private Life, without asking Relief from 
the Publick. 

Such who are strong and healthy may do that Business, 
which to the Weakly may be oppressive ; and in perform- 
ing that in a Day which is esteem' d a Day's Labour, by 
weakly Persons in the Field and in the Shops, and by 
weakly Women who spin and knit in the Manufactories, 
they often pass through Weariness; and many Sighs I 
believe are uttered in secret, unheard by some who might 
ease their Burdens. 

Labour in the right Medium is healthy, but in too much 
of it there is a painful Weariness; and the Hardships of 
the Poor are sometimes increased through Want of a 
more agreeable Nourishment, more plentiful Fewel for 
the Fire, and warmer Cloathing in the Winter than their 
Wages will answer. 

When I have beheld Plenty in some Houses to a Degree 
of Luxury, the Condition of poor Children brought up 
without Learning, and the Condition of the Weakly and 
Aged, who strive to live by their Labour, have often 
revived in my Mind, as Cases of which some who live in 
Fulness need to be put in Remembrance. 

There are few, if any, could behold their Fellow 

242 John Woolman's Writings 

Creatures lie long in Distress and forbear to help them, 
when they could do it without any Inconvenience; but 
Customs requiring much Labour to support them, do 
often lie heavy on the Poor, while they who live in these 
Customs are so entangled in a Multitude of unnecessary 
Concerns that they think but little of the Hardships 
which the poor People go through. 


On Silent Worship 

Worship in Silence hath often been refreshing to my 
Mind, and a Care attends me that a young Generation 
may feel the Nature of this Worship. 

Great Expence ariseth in Relation to that which is 
call'd Divine Worship. 

A considerable Part of this Expence is applied toward 
outward Greatness, and many poor People in raising of 
Tithe, labour in supporting Customs contrary to the 
Simplicity that there is in Christ, toward whom my Mind 
hath often been moved with Pity. 

In pure silent Worship, we dwell under the Holy 
Anointing, and feel Christ to be our Shepherd. 

Here the best of Teachers ministers to the several 
Conditions of his Flock, and the Soul receives immediately 
from the Divine Fountain, that with which it is nourished. 

As I have travelled at Times where those of other 
Societies have attended our Meetings, and have perceiv'd 
how little some of them knew of the Nature of silent 
Worship; I have felt tender Desires in my Heart that 
we who often sit silent in our Meetings, may live answer- 
able to the Nature of an inward Fellowship with God, 
that no Stumbling-block through us, may be laid in their 

Such is the Load of unnecessary Expence which lieth 
on that which is called Divine Service in many Places, 
and so much are the Minds of many People employ' d in 
outward Forms and Ceremonies, that the opening of an 
inward silent Worship in this Nation to me hath appeared 
to be a precious Opening. 

Within the last four Hundred Years, many pious 
People have been deeply exercised in Soul on Account of 
the Superstition which prevailed amongst the professed 


244 JoJ^^ Woolman's Writings 

Followers of Christ, and in support of their Testimony 
against oppressive Idolatry, some in several Ages have 
finished their Course in the Flames. 

It appears by the History of the Reformation, that 
through the Faithfulness of the Martyrs, the Understand- 
ings of many have been opened, and the Minds of People, 
from Age to Age, been more and more prepared for a 
real spiritual Worship. 

My Mind is often affected with a Sense of the Condition 
of those People who in different Ages have been meek 
and patient, following Christ through great Afflictions: 
And while I behold the several Steps, of Reformation, 
and that Clearness, to which through Divine Goodness, 
it hath been brought by our Ancestors; I feel tender 
Desires that we who sometimes meet in Silence, may 
never by our Conduct lay Stumbling-blocks in the Way of 
others, and hinder the Progress of the Reformation in 
the World. 

It was a Complaint against some who were called the 
Lord's People, that they brought polluted Bread to his 
Altar, and said the Table of the Lord was contemptible. 

In real silent Worship the Soul feeds on that which is 
Divine; but we cannot partake of the Table of the Lord, 
and that Table which is prepared by the God of this 

If Christ is our Shepherd, and feedeth us, and we are 
faithful in following him, our Lives will have an inviting 
Language, and the Table of the Lord will not be polluted. 







Printed by Mary Hinde. 


Being in the Course of his religious Visit at York, and 
having attended most of the Sittings of the Quarterly- 
Meeting there, held in the Ninth Month, 1772, he was 
taken ill of the Small Pox, in which Disorder he continued 
about two Weeks, at Times under great Affliction of 
Body, and then departed in full Assurance of a happy 
Eternity, as the following Expressions, amongst others, 
taken from his own Mouth, do plainly evidence. 

One Day being asked how he felt himself, he meekly 
answered, " I don't know that I have slept this Night: 
I feel the Disorder making its Progress, but my Mind is 
mercifully preserved in Stilness and Peace." Some Time 
after he said, *' He was sensible the Pains of Death must 
be hard to bear, but if he escaped them now, he must 
some Time pass through them, and did not know he could 
be better prepared, but had no Will in it." Said, " He 
had settled his outward Affairs to his Mind; had taken 
Leave of his Wife and Family, as never to return, leaving 
them to the Divine Protection: " Adding, " And though 
I feel them near to me at this Time, yet I freely give 
them up, having an Hope they will be provided for." 
And a little after said, " This Trial is made easier than I 
could have thought, by my Will being wholly taken away; 
for if I was anxious as to the Event, it would be harder, 
but I am not, and my Mind enjoys a perfect Calm." 

In the Night a young Woman having given him some- 
thing to drink, he said, " My Child, thou seemest very 
kind to me, a poor Creature, the Lord will reward thee for 
it." A while after he cried out with great Earnestness of 
Spirit, " Oh ! my Father, my Father, how comfortable 
art thou to my Soul in this trying Season." Being asked 
if he could take a little Nourishment, after some Pause 
he replied, " My Child, I cannot tell what to say to it: 


248 John Woolman's Writings 

I seem nearly arrived where my Soul shall have Rest from 
all its Troubles." After giving in something to be put 
into his Journal, he said, " I believe the Lord will now 
excuse me from Exercises of this Kind, and I see no 
Work but one, which is to be the last wrought by me in 
this World; the Messenger will come that will release me 
from all these Troubles, but it must be in the Lord's Time, 
which I am waiting for." He said, " He had laboured 
to do whatever was required, according to the Ability 
received, in the Remembrance of which he had Peace: 
And though the Disorder was strong at Times, and would 
come over his Mind like a Whirlwind, yet it had hitherto 
been kept steady, and center' d in everlasting Love." 
Adding, " And if that's mercifully continued, I ask nor 
desire no more." 

At another Time he said, " He had long had a View 
of visiting this Nation; and some Time before he came, 
he had a Dream, in which he saw himself in the Northern 
Parts of it; and that the Spring of the Gospel was opened 
in him, much as in the Beginning of Friends, such as 
George Fox and William Dewsbury ; and he saw the 
different States of People as clear as ever he had seen 
Flowers in a Garden; but in his going on he was suddenly 
stopt, though he could not see for what End, but looked 
towards Home, and in that fell into a Flood of Tears, 
which waked him." At another Time he said, " My 
Draught seem'd strongest to the North, and I mentioned 
in my own Monthly-Meeting, that attending the Quarterly- 
Meeting at York, and being there, looked like Home to 

Having repeatedly consented to take a Medicine with 
a View to settle his Stomach, but without Effect, the 
Friend then waiting on him, said, through Distress, " What 
shall I do now.^ " He answered with great Composure, 
" Rejoice evermore, and in every Thing give Thanks." 
But added a little after, " This is sometimes hard to 
come at." 

One Morning early he brake forth in Supplication on 
this wise; "Oh Lord! it was thy Power that enabled 
me to forsake Sin in my Youth, and I have felt thy 

John Woolman's Writings 249 

Bruises since for Disobedience, but as I bowed under 
them thou healedst me; and though I have gone through 
many Trials and sore Afflictions, thou hast been with me> 
continuing a Father and a Friend. I feel thy Power now, 
and beg that in the approaching trying Moments, thou 
wilt keep my Heart steadfast unto thee." Upon his 
giving the same Friend Directions concerning some little 
Matters, she said, " I will take Care, but hope thou mayst 
live to order them thyself; " he replied, " My Hope is in 
Christ; and though I may now seem a little better, a 
Change in the Disorder may soon happen, and my little 
Strength be dissolved, and if it so happen, I shall be 
gather' d to my everlasting Rest." On her saying, " She 
did not doubt that, but could not help mourning to see 
so many faithful Servants removed at so low a Time," 
he said, " All Goodness cometh from the Lord, whose 
Power is the same, and he can work as he sees best." 
The same Day, after giving her Directions about wrapping 
his Corpse, and perceiving her to weep, he said, " I had 
rather thou wouldst guard against Weeping or Sorrowing 
for me, my Sister; I sorrow not, though I have had some 
painful Conflicts; but now they seem over, and Matters 
all settled, and I look at the Face of my dear Redeemer, 
for sweet is his Voice, and his Countenance comely." 

Being very weak, and in general difficult to be under- 
stood, he uttered a few Words in Commemoration of the 
Lord's Goodness to him; and added, " How tenderly have 
I been waited upon in this Time of Affliction, in which 
I may say in Job's Words, Tedious Days and wearisome 
Nights are appointed unto me ; and how many are spending 
their Time and Money in Vanity and Superfluities, while 
Thousands and Tens of Thousands want the Necessaries of 
Life, who might be relieved by them, and their Distresses 
at such a Time as this, in some degree softened by the 
administring of suitable Things." 

An Apothecary who attended him of his own Accord 
(he being unwilling to have any sent for) appeared very 
anxious to assist him, with whom conversing, he queried 
about the Probability of such a Load of Matter being 
thrown off his weak Body, and the Apothecary making 

-250 John Woolman's Writings 

some Remarks, implying he thought it might, he spoke 
with an audible Voice on this wise: " My Dependance is 
in the Lord Jesus Christ, who I trust will forgive my 
Sins, which is all I hope for; and if it be his Will to raise 
up this Body again, I am content, and if to die I am 
resigned: And if thou canst not be easy without trying 
to assist Nature, in order to lengthen out my Life, I 
submit." After this, his Throat was so much affected, 
that it was very difficult for him to speak so as to be 
understood, and he frequently wrote when he wanted 
any Thing. About the second Hour on Fourth-day 
Morning, being the 7th of the Tenth Month, 1772, he 
asked for Pen and Ink, and at several Times, with much 
Difficulty, wrote thus: " I believe my being here is in 
the Wisdom of Christ; I know not as to Life or Death." 
About a Quarter before Six the same Morning, he seemed 
to fall into an easy Sleep, which continued about half an 
Hour, when seeming to awake, he breathed a few Times 
with more Difficulty, and so expired without Sigh, Groan, 
or Struggle. 

NotCy He often said, " It was hid from him, whether he 
might recover, or not, and he was not desirous to know 
it; but from his own Feeling of the Disorder, and his 
feeble Constitution, thought he should not." 


Mao« AtTmb 
TeMPue PRfjss ;^5/[^6Tchwortm 

'IN Grsat Britaim 





In Cloth Binding 

In Special Library Binding 

Also Selected Volumes in Leather 

•'"-'■-~*"i iiiiiMiiiii~nnii 



In each section of this list the volumes are arranged, as 
a general rule, alphabetically under the authors' names. 
Where authors appear in more than one section, a reference 
is given, viz. : {See also Fiction). The number at the end 
of each item is the number of the volume in the series. 

Volumes temporarily out of print are marked % 
Volumes obtainable in Leather are marked l 


Audubon the Naturalist, Life and Adventures of. By R. Buchanan. 601 
Baxter (Richard), Autobiography of. Edited by Rev. J. M. Lloyd 

Thomas, 868 
Beaconsfield (Lord), Life of. By J. A. Froude. 666 
Berlioz (Hector), Life of. Translated by Katherine F. Boult. 602 
Blackwell (Dr. Elizabeth) : Pioneer Work for Women. With an Introduc- 
tion by Mrs. Fawcett. 667 
L Boswell's Life of Johnson, 2 vols. 1-2 
{See also Travel) 
Browning (Robert), Life of. By E. Dowden. 701 
Buxton (Sir Thomsis Fowell). Memoirs of. Edited bv Charles Buxton. 

Introduction by Lord Buxton. 773 
Byron's Letters. Introduction by Andr6 Maurois. 931. 
Carey (William), Life of: Shoemaker and Missionary. 395 
Carlyle's Letters and Speeches of Cromwell. 3 vols. 266-8 
„ Reminiscences. 875 

{See also Essays and History) 
L Cellini's (Benvenuto) Autobiography, 51 
Cibber's (CoUey) An Apology for his Life. 668 
Constable (John), Memoirs of. By C. R. Leslie, R.A. 563 
Cowper (William), Selected Letters of. Intro, by W. Hadlev, M.A. 774 

{See also Poetry and Drama) 
De Quincey's Reminiscences of the Lake Poets. Intro, by E. Rhys. 163 

{See also Essays) 
De Retz (Cardinal): Memoirs. By Himself. 2 vols. 735-6 
Evelyn's Diary. 2 vols. Introduction by G. W. E. Russell. 220-1 
Forster's Life of Dickens. Intro, by G. K. Chesterton. 2 vols. 781-2 

{See also Fiction) 
Fox (George), Journal of. Text revised by Norman Penney, F.S.A. 

Introduction by Rufus M. Jones, LL.D. 764 
Franklin's (Benjamin) Autobiography. 316 
Froude's Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield. 666 
L Gaskell's (Mrs.) Life of Charlotte Bronte. Intro, by May Sinclair. 318 
Gibbon (Edward), Autobiography of. Intro, by Oliphant Smoatoa. 511 

{See also History) 
Gladstone, Life of. By G. W. E. Russell ('Onlooker'). 661 
Hastings (Warren), Life of. By (Dapt. L. J. Trotter. 452 
Helps' (Sir Arthiu-) Life of Columbus. 332 
Hodson, of Hodson's Horse. By Capt. L. J. Trotter. 401 
Holmes' Life of Mozart. Introduction by Ernest Newman. 564 
Houghton's Life and Letters of Keats. Introduction by Robert Lynd. 801 
Hutchinson (Col.), Memoirs of. Intro. Monograph by F. P. G. Guizot. 317 
Irving's Life of Mahomet. Introduction by Professor E. V. Arnold. 513 
Johnson's Lives of the Poets. Intro, by Mrs. Archer-Hind, M.A. 770-1 
Lamb (Charles), Letters of. 2 vols. 342-3 

(-See also Essays and For Young People) 
Lewes' Life of Goethe. Introduction by Havelock Ellis. 269 
Lincoln (Abraham), Life of. By Henry Bryan Binns. 783 

{See also Oratory) 
Lockhart's Life of Robert Bm-ns. Introduction by E. Rhys ' 156 
L „ Life of Napoleon. 3 

„ Life of Sir Walter Scott (abridged). 55 

Mazzini, Life of. By Bolton King, M.A. 5(i2 [Now castle. 722 

Newcastle (First Duko of). Life of, and other writings by the Duchess oi 


BIOGRAPHY— continued 

Outram (Sir J.), The Bayard of India. By Capt. L. J. Trotter. 393 

Pepys' Diary. Lord Braybrooke's 1854 ed. 2 vols. 53-4 

Plutarch's Lives of Noble Greeks and Romans. Dryden's Translation. 
Revised, with Introduction, by Arthur Hugh Clough. 3 vols. 407-9 

Rousseau, Confessions of. 2 vols. 859-60 

Scott's Lives of the Novelists. Introduction by George Saintsbury. 331 
(See also Fiction and Poetry) 

Seebohm (Frederic) : The Oxford Reformers. With a Preface by Hugh 
E. Seebohm. 665 

Smeaton's A Life of Shakespeare, with Criticisms of the Plays. 514 

Southey's Life of Nelson, 52 

Strickland's Life of Queen Elizabeth. 100 

Swift's Journal to Stella. Newly deciphered and edited by J. K. Moor- 
head. Introduction by Sir Walter Scott. 757 
(See also Essays and Fob Young People) 

Vasari's Lives of the Painters. Trans, by A. B. Hinds. 4 vols. 784-7 

Voltaire's Life of Charles XII. Introduction by Rt. Hon. J. Burns. 270 

Walpole (Horace), Selected Letters of. Intro, by W. Hadley, M.A. 775 

Wellington, Life of. By G. R. Gleig. 341 

Wesley's Journal. 4 vols. Intro, by Rev. F. W. Macdonald. 105-8 

Woolrnan's (John) Journal and Other Papers. Introduction by Vida D. 
Scudder. 402 


iEschylus' Lyrical Dramas. Translated by Professor J. S. Blackie. 62 
Aristophanes' The Frogs, The Clouds, The Thesmophorians. 516 

„ The Acharnians, The Knights, and The Birds. Frere's 

Translation. Introduction by John P. Maine. 344 
Aristotle's Politics. Introduction by A. D. Lindsay. 605 

„ Poetics, etc., and Demetrius on Style, etc. Edited by 

(See also Philosophy) [Rev. T. A. Moxon. 901 

Csesar's The GaUic War and Other Commentaries. Translated by W. A. 

McDevitte. 702 
Cicero's Essays and Select Letters. Intro. Note by de Quincy. 345 
L Epictetus, Moral Discourses, etc. Elizabeth Carter's Translation. Edited 
by W. H. D. Rouse, M.A. 404 
Euripides' Plays in 2 vols. Introduction by V. R. Reynolds. Translated 
by M. Wodhull and R. Potter, with Shelley's ' Cyclops ' and Dean 
Milman's 'Bacchanals'. 63,271 
Herodotus. Rawlinson's Translation. Edited, with Introduction, by 
E. H. Blakeney, M.A., omitting Translator's Original Essays, and 
Appendices. 2 vols. 405-6 
L Homer's lUad. Lord Derby's Translation. 453 

L „ Odyssey. William Cowper's Translation. Introduction by Misa 
F. M. StaweU. 454 
Horace. Complete Poetical Works. 515 
Hutchinson's (W. M. L.) The Muses* Pageant. Vols. I, II, and III. 581. 

606 and 671 
Livy's History of Rome. Vols. I-VI. Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts. 

603, 669, 670, 749, 755, and 756 
Lucretius: On the Nature of Things. Translated by W. E. Leonard. 750 
L Marcus Aurelius' Meditations, Introduction by W. H. D. Rouse. 9 
L Plato's Dialogues. 2 vols. Introduction by A. D. Lindsay. 456-7 
L „ Republic. Translated, with an Introduction, by A. D. Lindsav. 64 
Plutarch's Moralia. 20 Essays translated by Philemon Holland. 565 
Sophocles' Dramas. Translated by Sir G. Young, Bart. 114 
Thucydides' Peloponnesian War. Crawley's Translation. 455 
L Virgil's .^neid. Translated by E. Fairfax-Taylor. 161 

„ Eclogues and Georgics. Translated by T. F. Royds, M.A. 222 
Xenophon's Cyropeedia. Translation revised by Miss F. M. StaweU. 672 


L Anthology of Prose. Compiled and Edited by Miss S. L. Edwards. 675 
Arnold's (Matthew) Essays. Introduction by G. K. Chesterton. 115 
„ ,» Study of Celtic Literature, and other CriticalEssays, 

^A'ith Supplement by Lord Strangford, etc. 45S 
(See also Poetry) 
L Bacon's Essays. Introduction by Oliphant Smeaton. 10 
(See also Philosophy) 
Bagehot's Literary Studies. 2 vols. Intro, by George Sampson. 520-1 
X Brooke's (Stopford, M.A.) Theology in the English Pouts. 493 
L Brown's Rab and his Friends, etc. 116 


Biirke's Reflections on the French Revolution and contingent Essays. 

Introduction by A. J. Grieve, M.A. 460 (-See also Oratory) 

Canton's (William) The Invisible Playmate, W. V., Her Book, and In 
(See also For Young People) [Memory of W. V. 566 

Carlyle's Essays. 2 vols. With Notes by J. Russell Lowell. 703-4 
,, Past and Present. Introduction by R. W. Emerson. 608 
L „ Sartor Resartus and Heroes and Hero Worship. 278 

(See also Biographt and History) 
Casti^lione's The Courtier. Translated by Sir Thomas Hoby. Intro- 
duction by W. H. D. Rouse. 807 
li Century of Essays. A. An Anthologv of English Essayists. 653 

Chesterfield's (Lord) Letters to his Son. 823 
L Chesterton's (G. K.) Stories, Essays, and Poems. 913 

Coleridge's Biographia Literaria. ' Introduction by Arthur Symons. 11 
„ Essays and Lectures on Shakespeare, etc. 162 

{See also Poetry) 
J Craik's Manual of English Literature. 346 

Curtis's Prue and I, and Lotus Eating. Introduction by H. W. Mable. 418 
De Quincey's (Thomas) Opium Eater Intro, by Sir G. Douglas. 223 

„ „ The English MaU Coach and Other Writings. 

Introduction by S. Hill Burton. 609 
(See also Biography) 
Dryden's Dramatic Essays. With an Introduction by W. H. Hudson. 568 
Elyot's Gouernour. Intro, and Glossary by Prof. Foster Watson. 227 
L Emerson's Essays. First and Second Series. 12 
L „ Nature, Conduct of Life, Essays from the 'Dial'. 322 

„ Representative Men. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 279 
„ Society and Solitude and Other Essays. 567 
(See also Poetry) 
Florio's Montaigne. Introduction by A. R. WaUer, M.A. 3 vols. 440-2 
Froude's Short Studies. Vols. I and II. 13, 705 

(See also History and Biography) 
Gilfillan's Literary Portraits. Intro, by Sir W. Robertson Nicoll. 348 
Goethe's Conversations with Eckermann. Intro, by Havelock Ellis 

851. (See also Fiction and Poetry) 
Goldsmith's Citizen of the World and The Bee. Intro, by R. Church. 902 

(See also Fiction and Poetry) 
Hamilton's The Federalist. 519 

Hazlitt's Lectures on the English Comic Writers. 411 
„ Shakespeare's Characters. 65 
„ Spirit of the Age and Lectures on English Poets. 459 

Table Talk, 321 
„ Plain Speaiier. Introduction by P. P. Howe. 814 
L Holmes' Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. 66 
Poet at the Breakfast Table. 68 
„ Professor at the Breakfast Table. 67 
L Hudson's (W. H.) A Shepherd's Life. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 926 

Himt's (Leigh) Selected Essays. Introduction by J. B. Priestly.' 829 
L Irving's Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 117 
(See also Biography and History) 
Landor's Imaginary Conversations and Poems: A selection. Edited 
with Introduction by Havelock Ellis. 890 
L Lamb's Essays of Elia. Introduction by Augustine BirreU. 14 
(See also Biography and For Young People) 
Lowell's (James Russell) Among My Books. 607 

Macaulay's Essays. 2 vols. Introduction by A. J. Grieve, M.A. 225-6 
L „ Miscellaneous Essays and The Lays of Ancient Rome. 439 

(See also History and Oratory) 
Machiavelli's Prince. Special Trans, and Intro, by W. K. Marriott. 280 

(See also History) 
Martinengo-Cesaresco (Countess): Essays in the Study of Folk-Songs 673 
Mazzini's Duties of Man, etc. Introduction by Thomas Jones, M.A. 224 
Milton's Areopagitica, etc. Introduction by Professor C. E. Vaughan. 795 
(See also Poetry) 
L Mitford's Our S'illag-e. Edited, with Introduction, by Sir John Squire. 927 
Montagu's (Lady) Letters. Introduction by R. Brimley Jotmson. 69 
Newman's On the Scope and Nature of University Education, and a 
paper on Chriytianity and Scientific Investigation, Introduction by 
(See a/so Philosophy) [Wilfred Ward. 7 23 

Osborne's (Dorothy) Letters to Sir William Temple. Edited and con- 
notated by Judge Parry. 674 
Penn'H The Peace of Europe. Some Fruits of Solitude, etc. 724 
i'rehidc to Poetrj', The. Edited by Ernest Rhys. 789 


Reynold's Discourses. Introduction by L. March PMUipps. 118 
L Rhys' New Book of Sense and Nonsense. 813 

Rousseau's Emile. Translated by Barbara Foxley. 518 
(See also Philosophy and Theology) 
L Ruskin's Crown of Wild Olive and Cestus of Aglaia. 323 
,, Elements of Drawing and Perspective. 217 
„ Ethics of the Dust. Introduction by Grace Rhys. 232 

Modern Painters. 5 vols. Introduction by Lionel Gust. 208-12 
„ Pre-Raphaelitism. Lectures on Architecture and Painting, 
Academy Notes, 1855-9, and Notes on the Turner Gallery. 
Introduction by Laurence Binyon. 213 
L „ Sesame and Lilies, The Two Paths, and The King of the Golden 

River. Introduction by Sir Oliver Lodge. 219 
„ Seven Lamps of Architecture. Intro, by Selwyn Image. 207 
„ Stones of Venice. 3 vols. Intro, by L. March Phillipps. 213-15 
„ Time and Tide with other Essays. 450 

Unto This Last, The Political Economy of Art. 216 
{See also For Youno People) 
Spectator, The. 4 vols. Introduction by G. Gregory Smith. 164-7 
Spencer's (Herbert) Essays on Education. Intro, by C. W. Eliot. 504 
Sterne's Sentimental Journey and Journal and Letters to Eliza. Intro. 
{See also Fiction) [by George Saintsbury. 796 

l Stevenson's In the South Seas and Island Nights' Entertainments. 769 
L „ Virginibus Puerisque and Familiar Studies of Men and 

{See also Fiction, Poetry and Travel) [Books. 765 

Swift's Tale of a Tub, The Battle of the Books, etc. 347 

{See also Biography and For Young People) 
Table Talk. Edited by J. C. Thornton. 906 

Taylor's (Isaac) Words and Places, or Etymological Illustrations of 
History, Ethnology, and Geography. Intro, by Edward Thomas. 517 
Thackeray's (W. M.) The English Humourists and The Four Georges. 
Introduction by Walter Jerrold. 610 
(See also Fiction) 
L Thoreau's Walden. Introduction by Walter Raymond. 281 

Trench's On the Study of Words and English Past and Present. Intro- 
duction by George Sampson. 788 
Tytler's Essay on the Principles of Translation. 168 
Walton's Compleat Angler. Introduction by Andrew Lang. 70 


Aimard's The Indian Scout. 428 
L Ainsworth'8 (Harrison) Old St. Paul's. Intro, by W. E. A. Axon. 522 

„ „ The Admirable Crichton. Intro, by E. Rhys. 804 

L „ „ The Tower of London. 400 

L „ „ Windsor Castle. 709 

„ „ Rookwood. Intro, by Frank Swinnerton. 870 

American Short Stories of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by John 
Coumos. 840 
L Austen's (Jane) Emma. Introduction by R. B. Johnson. 24 

„ „ Mansfield Park. Introduction by R. B. Johnson. 23 

L „ „ Northanger Abbey and Persuasion. Introduction by 

R. B. Johnson. 25 
L „ „ Pride and Prejudice. IntroductionbyR. B. Johnson. 22 

L „ „ Sense and Sensibility. Intro, by R. B. Johnson. 21 

Balzac's (Honor6 de) Atheist's Mass. Preface by George Saintsbury. 229 
Catherine de M6dici. Introduction by Georeo 

Saintsbury. 419 ^ 

Christ in Flanders. Introduction by George 

Saintsbury. 284 
Cousin Pons. Intro, by George Saintsbury. 463 
Eugenie Grandet. Intro, by George Saintsbury. 169 
Lost Illusions. Intro, by George Saintsbury, 656 
OldGoriot. Introduction by George Saintsbury. 170 
The Cat and Racket, and Other Stories. 349 
The Chouans. Intro, by George Saintsbury. 285 
The Country Doctor. Intro. George Saintsbury. 530 
The Country Parson. 686 
The Quest of the Absolute. Introduction by Georira 

Saintsbury. 286 
The Rise and Fall of C6sar Birotteau. 596 
TheWild Ass's Skin. Intro, by George Saintsbury. -'6 
_ ., . TT ," ^. Ursule Mirouet. Intro, by George Saintsbury. T6i 
BarbuBse's Under Fn-e. Translated by Fitzwater Wray. 798 

TlCriON— continued 

t Beaumont's (Mary) Joan Seaton. Intro, by R. F. Horton, D.D. 597 

L Bennett's (Arnold) The Old Wives' Tale. 919 

L Blackmore's (R. D.) Lorna Doone. 304 

X ,, „ Springhaven. 350 

L Sorrow's Lavengro. Introduction by Thomas Seccombe. 119 

L „ Romany Rye. 120 {See also Travel) 

L Bronte's (Anne) The Tenant of Wildfell Hall and Agnes Qrey. 685 

L „ (Charlotte) Jane Eyre. Introduction by May Sinclair. 287 

L „ „ Shirley. Introduction by May Sinclair. 288 

„ „ The Professor. Introduction by May Sinclair. 417 

L „ „ Villette. Introduction by May Sinclair. 351 

L „ (Emily) Wuthering Heights. 243 

L Burney's (Fanny) Evelina. Introduction by R. B. Johnson. 352 

Butler's (Samuel) Erewhon and Erewhon Revisited. Introduction by 
Desmond MacCarthv. 881 
,, „ rheWayof All Flesh, Introduction by A.J. Hopp6. 895 

Collins' (Wilkie) The Woman in White. 464 
L Conrad's Lord Jim. Introduction by R. B. Cunninghame Graham. 925 
L Converse's (Florence) Long Will. 328 

Dana's (Richard H.) Two Years before the Mast. 588 
Daudet's Tartarin of Tarascon and Tartarin on the Alps. 423 
Defoe's Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders. Introduction by 
G. A. Aitken. 837 
„ Captain Singleton. Introduction by Edward Garnett. 74 
„ Journal of the Plague Year. Introduction by G. A. Aitken. 289 
„ Memoirs of a Cavalier. Introduction by G. A. Aitken. 283 

(See also For Young People) [Chesterton. 

Charles Dickens' Works. Each volume with an Introduction by G. K. 
L American Notes. 290 L Little Dorrit. 293 

L Barnaby Rudge. 76 L Martin Chuzzlewlt. 241 

L Bleak House. 236 L Nicholas Nickleby. 233 

L Child's History of England. 291 l Old Curiosity Shop. 173 
L Christmas Books. 239 L Oliver Twist. 233 

L Christmas Stories. 414 L O^u* Mutual Friend. 294 

L David Copperfleld. 242 L Pickwick Papers. 235 

L Dombev and Son. 240 L Reprinted Pieces. 744 

Edwin brood. 725 Sketches by Boz. 237 

L Great Expectations. 234 L Tale of Two Cities. 102 

Hard Times. 292 L Uncommercial Traveller. 536 

Disraeli's Conlngsby. Introduction by Langdon Davles. 535 
Dostoevfiky's (Fyodor) Crime and Punishment. Introduction by 
Laxu-ence Irving. 501 
,. „ Letters from the Underworld and Other Tales. 

Translated by C. J. Hogarth. 654 
„ „ Poor Folk and The Gambler. Translated by C. J. 

Hogarth. 711 
„ The Possessed. Introduction by J. Mlddleton 
Murry. 2 vols. 861-2 [533 

„ „ Prison Life in Siberia. Intro, by Madame Stepniak. 

„ „ The Brothers Karamazov. Translated by Con- 

stance Garnett. 2 vols. 802-3 
The Idiot. 682 
Du Manner's (George) Trilby. Introduction by Sir Gerald du Mauricr 

With the original Illustrations. 863 
Dumas' Black Tulip. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 174 
„ Chicot the Jester. 421 

„ Le Chevalier de Maison Rouge. Intro, by Julius Bramont. 614 

„ Marguerite de Valois ('La Reine Margot'). 326 

L „ The Count of Monte Cristo. 2 vols. 393-4 

The Forty-Five. 420 
L „ The Three Musketeers. 81 

„ The Vicomte de Bragelonne. 3 vols. 593-5 

L „ Twenty Years After. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 175 

Edgar's Cressy and Poictiors. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 17 
„ Runnymede and Lincoln Fair. Intro, by L. K. Hughes. 320 

(See also For Young People) 
Edgeworth's Castle Rackrent and The Absentee. 410 
L Eliot's (George) Adam Bede. 27 
Felix Holt. 353 
„ Middlemarch. 2 vols. 854-5 
L ,, .. Mill on the Floss. Intro. Sir W. Robertson Niooll. 325 

L ,, „ Romola. Introduction by Rudolf Dircks. 231 

L ,t „ ScenoH of Clerical Life. 468 


FICTION— continuecf 

Eliot's (George) Silas Mamer. Introduction by Annie Matheson. 121 
L English Short Stories. An Anthology. 743 

Erckmann-Chatrian's The Conscript and Waterloo. 354 

„ „ The Story of a Peasant. Translated hy C. J. 

Hogarth. 2 vols. 706-7 
Fenimore Cooper's The Deerslayer. 77 

„ „ The Last of the Mohicans. 79 

„ „ The Pathfinder. 78 

„ „ The Pioneers. 171 

The Prairie. 172 
Ferrier's (Snsan) Marriage. Introduction by H. L. Morrow. 816 
Fielding's AmeUa. Intro, by George Saints btu-y. 2 vols. 852-3 

„ Jonathan WUd, and The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 

Introduction by George Saintsbury. 877 
„ Joseph Andrews. Introduction by George Saintsbury. 467 
L „ Tom Jones. Intro, by George Saintsbury. 2 vols. 355-6 

Flaubert's Madame Bovary. Translated by Eleanor Marx-Aveling. 
Introduction by George Saintsbury, 808 
„ SalammbS. Translated by J. S. Chartres. Introduction by 

Professor F. C. Green. 869 
French Short Stories of the 19th and 20th Centuries. Selected, with 
an Introduction by Professor F. C. Green. 896 
L Galsworthy's (John) The Country House. 917 

Gait's Annals of a Parish. Introduction by Baillie Macdonald. 427 
Gaskell's (Mrs.) Cousin Phillis, etc. Intro, by Thos. Seccombe. 615 
L „ Cranford. 83 

„ Mary Barton. Introduction by Thomas Seccombe. 598 

North and South. 680 
,, Sylvia's Lovers. Intro, by Sirs. ElUs Chadwick. 524 

Gleig's (G. R.) The Subaltern. 708 
Goethe's Wilhelm Meister. Carlyle's Translation. 2 vols. 599-600 

{See also Essays and Poetrt) 
Gogol's (Nicol) Dead Souls. Translated by C. J. Hogarth. 725 
„ „ Taras Bulba and Other Tales. 740 
L Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield. Introduction by J. M. D, 295 
(See also Essays and Poetry) 
Goncharov's Oblomov. Translated by Natalie Duddington. 878 
Gorki's ThroTigh Russia. Translated by C. J. Hogarth. 741 
t Gotthelf 's Ulric the Farm Servant. Ed. \vith Notes by John Ruskin. 228 
Harte's (Bret) Luck of Roaring Camp and other Tales. 681 
Hawthorne's The House of the Seven Gables. Intro, by Ernest Rhys. 176 
L „ The Scarlet Letter. 122 

„ The Blithedale Romance. 592 

„ The Marble Faun. Intro, by Sir Leslie Stephen. 424 

Twice Told Tales. 531 
{See also For young People) 
L Hugo's (Victor) Les Miserables. Intro, by S. R. John. 2 vols. 363-4 
L „ „ Notre Dame. Introduction by A. C Swinburne. 422 

L „ „ Toilers of the Sea. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 509 

Italian Short Stories. Edited by D. Pettoello. 876 
James's (G. P. R.) Richelieu. Introduction by Rudolf Dircks. 357 
L James's (Henry) The Turn of the Screw and The Aspern Papers. 912 

Ivingsley's (Charles) Alton Locke. 462 
L „ „ Hereward the Wake. Intro, by Ernest Rhys. 296 

L „ „ Hypatia, 230 

L „ „ Westward Ho; Introduction by A. G. Grieve. 20 

Yeast. 611 

{See also Poetry and For Young People) 
„ (Henry) Geoffrey Hamlyn. 416 

„ „ Ravenshoe. 28 

L Lawrence's (D. H.) The White Peacock. 914 

Lever's Harry Lorrequer. Introduction by Lewis Melville. 177 
L Loti's (Pierre) Iceland Fisherman. Translated by W. P. Baines. 920 
L Lover's Handy Andy. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 178 
L Lytton's Harold. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 15 
L „ Last Days of Pompeii. 80 

„ Last of the Barons. Introduction by R. G. Watkin. 18 
„ Rienzi. Introduction by E. H. Blakeney, M.A. 533 
(-S'ee also Travel) 
MacDonaid's (George) Sir Gibbie. 678 

{See also Romance) [(Mrs. Htakson). 324 

Manning's Marv Pov,'ell and Deborah's Diary. Intro, by Katherine Tynan 
»y Sir Thomas More. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 19 


FICTION— continued 

Marryat's Jacob Faithful. 618 
L ,, Mr. Midshipman Easy. Introduction by B. B. Johnson. 82 

„ Percival Keene. Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson. 358 

„ Peter Simple. Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson. 232 

„ The King's Own. 580 

{See also Fob Young People) 
Maugham's (Somerset) Cakes and Ale. 932 

Maupassant's Short Stories. Translated by Marjorie Laurie. Intro- 
duction by Gerald Gould. 907 
Melville's (Herman) Moby Dick. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 179 
„ „ Omoo. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 297 

,, ,, Typee. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 180 

L Meredith's (George) The Ordeal of Richard Feverel. 916 

M6rim6e's Carmen, with Provost's IManon Lescaut. Introduction by 

Philip Henderson. 834 
Mickiewicz's (Adam; Pan Tadeusz. 842 
Moore's (George) Esther Waters. 933 
J Morier's Hajji Baba. 679 

Mulock's John Halifax, Gentleman. Introduction bv J. Shaylor. 123 
Neale's ( J.M.) The Fall of Constantinople. 655 
t Oliphant's (Mrs.) Salem Chapel. Intro, by Sir W Robertson NicoJl. 244 
Paltock's (Robert) Peter Wilkins; or. The Flving Indians. Introduction 

by A. H. BuUen. 676 
Pater's Marius the Epicurean. Introduction by Osbert Burdett. 903 
Peacock's Headlong Hall and Nightmare Abbey. 327 
L Poe's Tales of Mystery and Imagination. Intro, by Padraic Colum. 336 
(See also Poetky) [Philip Henderson. 834 

Pr6vo8t's Manon Lescaut, with M6rim6e's Carmen. Introduction by 
Pushkin's (Alexander) The Captain's Daughter and Other Tales. Trans. 

by Natalie Duddington. 898 
Quiller-Couch's (Sir Arthur) Hetty Wesley. 864 

Radcliffe's (Ann) Mysteries of Udolpho. Introduction by R. Austin 
Freeman. 2 vols. 865-6 
L Reade's (O.) The Cloister and the Hearth. Intro, by A. C. Swinburne. 29 
Reade's (C.) Peg WofRngton and Christie Johnstone. 299 
Richardson's (Samuel) Pamela. Intro, by G. Saintsbury. 2 vols. 683-4 
„ Clarissa. Intro, by Prof. W L. Phelps. 4 vols. 
88 2-5 
Russian Authors, Short Stories from. Trans, by R. S. Townsend. 758 
Sand's (George) The Devil's Pool and Francois the Waif. 534 
Scheffel's Ekkehard: a Tale of the Tenth Century. 529 
Scott's (Michael) Tom Cringle's Log. 710 
Sir Walter Scott's Works : 
L Abbot, The. 124 L Ivanhoe. Intro, by Ernest Rhys. 16 

Anne of Geierstein. 125 L Kenilworth. 135 

L Antiquary, The. 126 L Monastery, The. 136 

Black Dwarf and Legend of L Old Mortality. 137 

Montrose. 128 Peveril of the Peak. 138 

Bride of Lammermoor. 129 Pirate, The. 139 

Castle Dangerous and The Siir- L Quentin Durward. 140 

geon's Daughter. 130 L Redgauntlet. 141 

Count Robert of Paris. 131 L Rob Roy. 142 

L Fair Maid of Perth. 132 St. Ronan's Well. 143 

Fortunes of Nigel. 71 L Talisman, The. 144 

L Guy Mannering. 133 L Waverley. 75 

L Heart of Midlothian, The. 134 L Woodstock. Intro, by Edward 
Highland Widow and Betrothed. 127 Garnett. 72 

{See also Biography and Poetry) 
Shchedrin's The Golovlyov Family. Translated by Natalie Duddington. 

Introduction by Edward Garnett, 908 
Shellev's (Mary Wollstonecraft) Frankenstein. 616 
Sheppard's Charles Auchester, Intro, by Jessie M. Middleton. 505 
Sienkiewicz (Henryk). Tales from. Edited by Monica M. Gardner. 871 
Shorter Novels, Vol. I. Elizabethan and Jacobean. Edited by Philip 
Henderson. 824 
„ „ Vol. II. Jacobean and Restoration. Edited by Philip 

Henderson. 841 
„ „ Vol. Ill Eighteenth Century (Beckford's Vathek, 

Walpole's Castle of Otranto, and Dr. Johnson's 
Smollett's Peregrine Pickle. 2 vols. 838-9 fRasselas). 856 

„ Roderick Random. Introduction by H. W. Hodges, 790 

L Sterne's Tristram Shandy. Introduction by George Saintsbury. 617 
{See also Essays) 

FICTION— continued 

L Stevenson's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The Merry Men, and Other Tales. 
L „ The Master of Ballantrae and The Black Arrow. 764 [767 

L „ Treasure Island and Kidnapped. 763 

„ St. Ives. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 901 

(See also Essays, Poetry, and Travel) 
Surtees' Jorrocks' Jaunts and Jollities. 817 
L Tales of Detection. Edited, with Introduction, by Dorothy L. Savers. 928 
Thackeray's Rose and the Ring and other stories. Introduction by Walter 
Jerrold. 359 
Esmond. Introduction by Walter Jerrold. 73 
Newcomes. Introduction by Walter Jerrold. 2 vols. 465-6 
Pendennis. Intro, by Walter Jerrold. 2 vols. 425-6 
Roundabout Papers. 687 

Vanity Fair. Introduction by Hon. Whitelaw Reid. 298 
Virginians. Introduction by Walter Jerrold. 2 vols. 50 7 -S 
(See also Essays) 

L Tolstoy 's Anna Karenina. Trans, by Rochelle S. Townsend. 2 vols. 612-13 
„ Childhood, Boyhood, and Youth. Trans, by C. J. Hogarth. 591 

„ Master and Man, and other Parables and Tales. 469 

„ War and Peace. 3 vols. 525-7 

Trollope's (Anthony) Barchester Towers. 30 
„ Dr. Thorne. 360 

„ „ Framley Parsonage. Intro, by Ernest Rhys. 181 

„ „ The Golden Lion of Granpere. Introduction by 

Hugh Walpole. 761 
„ „ The Last Chronicle of Barset. 2 vols. 391-2 

„ „ PhineasFinn. Intro, by Hugh Walpole. 2 vols. 832-3 

„ „ The Small House at Allington. 361 

„ „ The Warden. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 182 

Turgenev's Fathers and Sons. Translated by C. J. Hogarth. 742 
Liza. Translated by W. R. S. Ralston. 677 
,, Virgin Soil. Translated by Rochelle S. Townsend. 528 

L Walpole's (HuRh) Mr. Perrin and Mr. Traill. 918 
L Wells's (H. G.) The Time Machine and The Wheels of Chance. 915 
Whyte-Melville's The Gladiators. Introduction by J. Mavrogordato. 523 
Wood's (Mrs. Henry) The Channings. 84 
Yonge's (Charlotte M.) The Dove in the Eagle's Nest. 329 

„ The Heir of Redclyffe. Intro. Mrs. Meynell. 362 

(See also For Young People) 
Zola's (Emile) Geraunal, Translated by Havelock Ellis. 897 


Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, The. Translated by James Ingram. 624 
Bede's Ecclesiastical History, etc. Introduction by Vida D. Scudder. 479 
Burnet's History of His Own Times. 85 
L Carlyle's French Revolution. Introduction by H. Belloc. 2 vols. 31-2 

(See also Biography and Essays) 
L Creasy's Decisive Battles of the World. Introduction by E. Rhys. 300 
De Joinville (See Villehardouin) 

Duruy's (Jean Victor) A History of France. 2 vols. 737-8 
Finlay's Byzantine Empire. 33 

„ Greece under the Romans. 185 
Froude's Henry VIII. Intro, by Llewellyn Williams, M.P. 3 vols. 372-4 
„ Edward VI. Intro, by Llewellyn Williams, M.P., B.C.L. 375 
„ Mary Tudor. Intro, by Llewellyn Williams, M.P., B.C.L. 477 
„ History of Queen Elizabeth's Reign. 5 vols. Completing 
Froude's 'History of England', in 10 vols. 583-7 
(See also Essays and Biography) 
Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Edited, with Introduc- 
tion and Notes, by Oliphant Smeaton, M.A. 6 vols. 434-6, 474-6 
(See also Biography) 
Green's Short History of the English People. Edited and Revised by 
L. Cecil Jane, with an Appendix by R. P. Farley, B.A. 2 vols. 727-8 
Grote's History of Greece. Intro, by A. D. Lindsay. 12 vols. 186-97 
Hallam's (Henry) Constitutional History of England. 3 vols. 621-3 
HoUnshed's Chronicle as used in Shakespeare's Plays. Introduction by 

Professor Allardyce NicoU. 800 
Irving's (Washington) Conquest of Granada. 478 

(See also Essays and Biography) 
Josephus' Wars of the Jews. Introduction by Dr. Jacob Hart. 712 
Liitzow's History of Bohemia. 432 
L Macaulay's History of England. 3 vols. 34-6 
(See also Essays and Oratory) 

UlSTORY— continued 

Machiavelli's History of Florence. 376 (See also Essays) 

jVlaine's (Sir Henry) Ancient Law. 734 

Merlvale's History of Rome. (An Introductory vol. to Gibbon.) 433 

Mignet's (F, A. M.) The French Revolution. 713 

Miiman's History of the Jews. 2 vols. 377-8 

Mommsen's History of Rome. Translated by W. P. Dickson, LL.D. 

With a review of the work by E. A. Freeman. 4 vols. 542-5 
L Motley's Dutch Republic. 3 vols. 86-8 

Parkman's Conspiracy of Pontiac. 2 vols. 302-3 

Paston Letters, The. Based on edition of Knight. Introduction by 

Mrs. Archer-Hind, M.A. 2 vols. 752-3 
Pilgrim Fathers, The. Introduction by John Masefleld. 480 
L Pinnow's History of Germany. Translated by M. R. Brailsford. 929 
Political Liberty, The Growth of. A Source-Book of English History. 

Arranged by Ernest Rhys. 745 
Prescott's Conquest of Mexico. With Introduction by Thomas Seocombe, 
M.A. 2 vols. 397-8 
„ Conquest of Peru. Intro, by Thomas Seccombe, M.A. 301 
Sismondi's Italian Republics. 250 
Stanley's Lectures on the Eastern Church. Intro, by A. J. Grieve. 251 

„ Memorials of Canterbiu*y. 89 
Tacitus. Vol. I Annals. Introduction by E. H. Blakeney. 273 

„ Vol. II. Agricola and Germania. Intro, by E. H. Blakeney. 274 
Thierry's Norman Conquest. Intro, by J. A. Price, B.A. 2 vols. 198-9 
ViUehardouin and De Joinville's Chronicles of the Crusades. Translated. 

with Introduction, by Sir F. Marzials, C.B. 333 
Voltaire's Age of Louis XIV. Translated by Martyn P. Pollack. 780 


L Anthology of British Historical Speeches and Orations. Compiled by 
Ernest Rhys. 714 
Bright's (John) Speeches. Selected with Intro, by Joseph Sturge. 252 
Burke's American Speeches and Letters. 340 

(See also Essays) 
Demosthenes: Select Orations. 546 
Fox (Charles James): Speeches (French Revolutionary War Period). 

Edited with Introduction by Irene Cooper Willis, M.A. 759 
Lincoln's Speeches, etc. Intro, by the Rt. Hon. James Bryce. 206 

(See also Biography) 
Macaulay's Speeches on Politics and Literature. 399 

(See also Essays and History) 
Pitt's Orations on the War with France. 145 


L A Kempis' Imitation of Christ. 484 

Ancient Hebrew Literature. Being the Old Testament and Apocrypha 

Arranged by the Rev. R. B. Taylor. 4 vols. 253-6 
Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics of. Translated by D. P. Chase. 

Introduction by Professor J. A. Smith. 547 
(See also Classical) 
Bacon's The Advancement of Learning. 719 

(See also Essays) 
Berkeley's (Bishop) Principles of Human Knowledge, New Theory of 

Vision. With Introduction by A. D. Lindsay. 483 
Boehme's (Jacob) The Signature of All Things, with Other Writings. 

Introduction by Clifford Bax. 569 
Browne's Religio Medici, etc. Introduction by Professor C. H. Herford. 92 
Bunyan's Grace Abounding and ]VIr. Badman. Introduction by G. B. 

Harrison. 815 (See also Romance) 

Burton's (Robert) Anatomy of Melancholy. Introduction by Holbrook 

Jackson. 3 vols. 886-8 
Butler's Analogy of Religion. Introduction by Rev. Ronald Bayne. 90 
Descartes' (Rene) A Discourse on Method. Translated by Professor John 

Veitch. Introduction hj A. D. Lindsay. 570 
L Ellis* (Havelock) Selected Essays. Introduction by J. 8. Collis. 930 
L Gore's (Charles) The Philosophy of the Good Life. 924 

Hobbes' Leviathan. Edited, with Intro, by A. D. Lindsay, M.A. 691 
Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity. Intro, by Rev, H. Bayne, 2 vols. 201-2 
Hume's Treatise of Human Nature, and other Philosophical Works. 

Introduction by A, D. Lindsay. 2 vols. 548-9 
James (William): Selected Papers on Phuosophy. 739 
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by J. M. D. Meiklejohn. 

Introduction by Dr. A. D. Lindsay. 909 



Keble's The Christian Year, Introduction by J. C. Shairp. 690 
King Edward VI. First and Second Prayer Books. Introduction by the 
Right Rev. Bishop of Gloucester. 448 
L Koran, The. Rodwell's Translation. 380 

Latimer's Sermons. Introduction by Canon Beeching. 40 

Law's Serious CaU to a Devout and Holy Life. 91 

Leibniz's Philosophical Writings Selected and trans, by Mary Morris. 

Introduction by C. R, Morris, M.A. 905 
Locke's Two Treatises of Civil Government. Introduction by Professor 

William S. Carpenter. 751 
Malthus on the Principles of Population. 2 vols. 692-3 
Maurice's Kingdom of Christ. 2 vols. 146-7 (Vol. 146 1) 
Mill's (John Stuart) Utilitarianism, Liberty, Representative Government. 
With Introduction by A. D. Lindsay. 482 
„ Subjection of Women. (See Wollstonecraft, Mary, under Science.) 
More's Utopia. Introduction by Judge O'Hagan. 461 
L New Testament. Arranged in the order in which the books came to the 
Christians of the First Century. 93 
Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua. Intro, by Dr. Charles Sarolea. 636 

{See also Essays) 
Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra. Translated by A. Tille and 

M. M. Bozman, 892 
Paine's Rights of Man. Introduction by G. J. Holyoake. 718 
Pascal's Pens6es. Translated by W. F. Trotter. Introduction by 
T. S. EUot. 874 
L Ramayana and the Mahabharata, The. Translated by Romesh Dutt, 
CLE. 403 
Renan's Life of Jesus. Introduction by Right Rev. Chas. Gore, D.D. 805 
Robertson's (F. W.) Sermons on Religion and Life, Christian Doctrine, 
and Bible Subjects. Each Volume with Introduction by Canon 
Burnett. 3 vols. 37-9 
Robinson's (Wade) The Philosophy of Atonement and Other Sermons. 

Introduction by Rev. F. B. Meyer. 637 
Rousseau's (J. J.) The Social Contract, etc. 660 

(See also Essays) 
St. Augustine's Confessions. Dr. Pusey's Translation. 200 
L St. Francis: The Little Flowers, and The Life of St. Francis. 485 
Seeley's Ecce Homo. Introduction by Sir Oliver Lodge. 305 
Spinoza's Ethics, etc. Translated by Andrew J. Boyle. With Intro- 
duction by Professor Santayana. 481 
Swedenborg's (Emmanuel) Heaven and HeU. 379 

„ „ The Divine Love and Wisdom. 635 

„ „ The Divine Providence. 658 

L „ „ The True Christian Religion. 893 


Anglo-Saxon Poetry. Edited by Professor R. K. Gordon. 794 
Arnold's (Matthew) Poems, 1840-66, including Thyrsis. 334 
L Ballads, A Book of British. Selected by R. B. Johnson. 572 

Beaumont and Fletcher, The Select Plays of. Introduction by Professor 

Baker, of Harvard University. 506 
BjOrnson's Plays. Vol. I. The Newly Married Couple, Leonardo, A 
Gauntlet. Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 
„ „ Vol. II. The Editor, The Bankrupt, and The King. 

Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 696 
Blake's Poems and Prophecies. Introduction by Max Plowman. 792 
L Browning's Poems, 1833-44. Introduction by Arthur Waugh. 41 
L Browning's Poems, 1844-64. 42 

L „ The Ring and the Book. Intro, by Chas. W. HodeU. 502 

L Burns' Poems and Songs. Introduction by J. Douglas. 94 
Byron's Poetical and Dramatic Works. 3 vols. 486-8 
Calderon: Six Plays, translated by Edward Fitzgerald. 819 
L Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Edited by Principal Burrell, M.A. 307 
Coleridge, Golden Book of. Edited by Stopford A. Brooke. 43 

(See also Essays) 
Cowper (WilUam). Poems of. Edited by H. I'Anson Fausset. 872 
(See also Biography) 
L Dante's Divine Comedy (Gary's Translation). SpeciaUy edited by 
Edmund Gardner. 308 
Donne's Poems. Edited by H. I'Anson Faujwet. 867 
Dryden's Poems. Edited by Bonamy Dobree. 910 
Eighteenth -Century Plays. Edited by John Hampden. 818 


POETRY AND DRAMA— continued 

Emerson's Poems. Introduction by Professor Bakewell, Yale, U.S.A. 715 

Everyman and other Interludes, including eight Miracle Plays. Edited 

by Ernest Rhys. 381 

L Fitzgerald'a (Edward) Omar Khayyam and Six Plays of Calderon. 819 

L Goethe's Faust. Parts I and II. Trans, and Intro, by A. G. Latham. 335 

{See also Essays and Fiction) [well. 921 

L Golden Book of Modern English Poetry, The. Edited by Thomas Cald- 

L Golden Treasury of Longer Poems, The. Edited by Ernest Rhys. 746 

Goldsnoith's Poems and Plays. Introduction by Austin Dobson. 415 

(See also Essays and Fiction) 
Gray's Poems and Letters. Introduction by John Drinkwater. 623 
Hebbel's Pia^'-s. Translated with an Introduction by Dr. C. K. Allen. 694 
Heine: Prose and Poetry. 911 

Herbert's Temple. Introduction by Edward Thomas. 309 
t Heroic Verse, A Volume of. Arranged by Arthur BurreU, M.A. 574 

Herrick's Hesperides and Noble Numbers. Intro, by Ernest Rhys. 310 
L Ibsen's Brand. Translated by F. E. Garrett. 716 
L „ Ghosts, The Warriors at Helgeland, and An Enemy of the People. 

Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 552 
L „ Lady Inger of Ostraat, Love's Comedy, and The League of 
Youth. Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 729 
„ Peer Gynt. Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 747 
L „ A Doll's House, The Wild Duck, and The Lady from the Sea. 

Translated by R. Farquharson Sharp. 494 
L „ The Pretenders, Pillars of Society, and Rosmersholm. Translated 
by R. Farquharson Sharp. 659 
Jonson's (Ben) Plays. Introduction by Professor ScheUing. 2 vols. 489-90 
Kalidasa: Shakuntala. Translated by Professor A. W. Ryder. 629 
L Keats' Poems. 101 

Kingsley's (Charles) Poems. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 793 
(See also Fiction and For Young People) 
L Langland's (William) Piers Plowman. 571 

Lessing's Laocoon, Minna von Barnhelm, and Nathan the Wise. 843 
L Longfellow's Poems. Introduction by Katherine Tynan. 382 
L Marlowe's Plays and Poems. Introduction by Edward Thomas. 383 
L Milton's Poems. Introduction by W. H. D. Rouse. 384 
[See also Essays) 
l^Iinor Elizabethan Drama. Vol. I. Tragedy. Selected, with Introduction, 
by Professor Thorndike. Vol. II. Comedy. 491-2 
L Minor Poets of the 18th Century. Edited by H. I' Anson Fausset. 844 
Minor Poets of the 17th Century. Edited by R. G. Howarth. 873 
Moli^re's Comedies. Introduction by Prof. F. C. Green. 2 vols. 830-1 
L New Golden Treasury, The. An Anthology of Songs and Lyrics. 695 

Old Yellow Book, The. Introduction by Charles E. Hodell. 503 
L Omar Khayyam (The Rubaiyat of). Trans, by Edward Fitzgerald. 819 
L, Palgrave's' Golden Treasury. Introduction by Edward Hutton. 96 
Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 2 vols. 148-9 
Poe's (Edgar Allan) Poems and Essays. Intro, by Andrew Lang. 791 

(See also Fiction) 
Pope (Alexander): Collected Poems. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 760 
Procter's (Adelaide A.) Legends and Lyrics. 150 

Restoration Plays, A Volume of. Introduction by Edmund Gosse. 604 
L Rossetti's Poems and Translations. Introduction by E, G. Gardner. 627 
Scott's Poems and Plays. Intro, by Andrew Lang. 2 vols, 550-1 
(See also Biography and Fiction) 
L Shakespeare's Comedies. 153 

L „ Historical Plays, Poems, and Sonnets. 154 

L „ Tragedies. 155 

L Shelley's Poetical Works. Introduction by A. H. Koszul. 2 vols. 257-8 
L Sheridan's Plays. 95 

Spenser's Faerie Queene. Intro, by Prof. J. W. Hales. 2 vols. 443-4 
„ Shepherd's Calendar and Other Poems. Edited by Philip 
Henderson. 879 
Stevenson's Poems — A Child's Garden of Verses, Underwoods, Songs of 
Travel, BaUads. 768 

(See also Essays, Fiction, and Travel) 
L Tennyson's Poems. Vol. I, 1830-50. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 44 
L , Vol. II, 1857-70. 626 [Harrison. 899 

Webster and Ford. Plays. Selected, with Introduction, by Dr. G. B. 
Whitman's (Walt) Leaves of Grass (I), Democratic Vistas, etc. 573 
Wilde (Oscar), Plays, Prose Writings and Poems. 858 
L Wordsworth's Shorter Poems. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 20J 
L „ Longer Poems. Note by Editor. 311 



Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography. Many colourod and line 
Maps; Historical Gazetteer, Index, etc. 451 

Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. 449 

Biographical Dictionary of Foreign Literature. 900 

Dates, Dictionary of. 554 

Dictionary ol Quotations and Proverbs. 2 vols. 809-10. 

Everyman's English Dictionary. 776 

Literary and Historical Atlas. I. Europe. Many coloured and line Maps; 

full Index and Gazetteer. 496 
„ „ „ II. America. Do. 653 

„ „ „ III. Asia. Do. 633 

„ ,, „ IV. Africa and Australia. Do. 662 

Non-Classical Mythologry, Dictionary of. 632 

Reader's Guide to Everyman's Library. By R. Farquharson Sharp. 
Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 889 

Roget's Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases. 2 vols. 630-1. 

Smith's Smaller Classical Dictionary. Revised and Edited by E. H. 
Blakeney, M.A. 495 

Wright's An Encyclopaedia of Gardening. 555 


Aucassin and Nicolette, with other Medieval Romances, 497 
Boccaccio's Decameron. (Unabridged.) Translated by J. M. RiarsT- 
Introduction by Edward Hutton. 2 vols. 845-6 
L Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Introduction by Rev. H. E. Lewis. 204 

Burnt Njal, The Story of. Translated by Sir George Dasent. 558 
L Cervantes' Don Quixote. Motteux' Translation. Lockhart's Intro- 
duction. 2 vols. 385-6 
Chretien de Troyes : Eric and Enid. Translated, with Introduction and 

Notes, by WiUiam Wistar Comfort. 698 
French Medieval Romances. Translated by Eugene Mason. 557 
Geoffrey of Monmouth's Histories of the Kings of Britain. 577 
Grettir Saga, The. Newly Translated by G. Ainslie Hight. 699 
Gudrun. Done into English by Margaret Armour. 880 
Guest's (Lady) Mabinogion. Introduction by Rev. R. Williams. 97 
Heimskringla : The Olaf Sagas. Translated by Samuel Laing. Intro- 
duction and Notes by John Beveridge. 717 
„ Sagas of the Norse Kings. Translated by Samuel Laing. 

Introduction and Notes bv John Beveridge. 847 
Holy Graal, The High History of the. 445 

Kalevala. Introduction by W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S. 2 vols. 259-60 
Le Sage's The Adventures of Gil Bias. Introduction by Anatoie Le 

Bras. 2 vols. 437-8 
MacDonald's (George) Phantastes: A Faerie Romance. 732 
{See also Fiction) 
L Malory's Le Morte d' Arthur. Intro, by Professor Rhvs. 2 vols. 45-6 
L Morris (William): Early Romances. Introduction by Alfred Noyes. 261 
„ „ The Life and Death of Jason. 575 

Morte d' Arthur Romances, Two. Introduction by Lucy A. Paton. 634 
Nibelungs, The Fall of the. Translated by Margaret Armour. 312 
Rabelais' The Heroid Deeds of Gargantua and Pantagruel. Introduction 

by D. B. Wyndham Lewis. 2 vols. 826-7 
Wace's Arthurian Romance. Translated by Eugene Mason. Laya- 
mon's Bi^t. Introduction by Lucy A. Paton. 578 


Boyle's The Sceptical Chymist. 559 

Darwin's The Origin of Species. Introduction by Sir Arthur Keith. 811 

{See also Travel) [E. F. Bozman. 922 

L Eddington's (Sir Arthur) The Nature of the Physical World, Intro, by 

Euclid: the Elements of. Todhunter's Edition. Introduction by Sir 

Thomas Heath, K.C.B. 891 
Faraday's (Michael) Experimental Researches in Electricity. 576 
Galton's Inquiries into Human Faculty. Revised by Author. 263 
George's (Henry) Progress and Poverty. 560 
Hahnemann's (Samuel) The Organon of the Rational Art of Healing. 

Introduction by C. E. Wheeler. 663 
Harvey's Cu'culation of the Blood. Introduction by Ernest Parkyn. 262 
Howard's State of the Prisons. Introduction by Kenneth Ruck. 835 
Huxley's Essays. Introduction by Sir Oliver Lodge. 47 

„ Select Lectures and Lay Sermons. Intro. Sir Oliver Lodge. 498 

Ly ell's Antiquity of Man. With an Introduction by R. H. Rastall. 700 

SCIENCE— continued 

Marx's (Karl) Capital. Translated by Eden and Cedar Paul. Intro- 
duction by G. D. H. Cole. 2 vols. 848-9 
Miller's Old Red Sandstone. 103 

Owen's (Robert) A New View of Society, etc. Intro, by G. D. H. Cole. 799 
Ricardo's Principles of Political Economy and Taxation. 590 
Smith's (Adam) The Wealth of Nations. 2 vols. 412-13 
Tyndall's Glaciers of the Alps and Mountaineering in 1861. 98 
White's Selborne. Introduction by Principal Windle. 48 
Wollstonecraft (Mary), The Rights of Woman, with John Stuart Mill's 
The Subjection of Women. 825 


Anson's Voyages. Introduction by John Masefleld. 510 

Bates' Naturalist on the Amazon. With Illustrations. 446 

Belt's The NatiiraUst in Nicaragua. Intro, by Anthony Belt, F.L.S. 561 

Borrow's (George) The Gypsies in Spain. Intro, by Edward Thomas. 697 

I, „ „ The Bible in Spain. Intro, by Edward Thomas. 151 

„ „ Wild Wales. Intro, by Theodore Watts-Dunton. 49 

(See also Fiction) 
Boswell's Tour in the Hebrides with Dr. Johnson. 387 

(See also Biography) 
Biirton's (Sir Richard) First Footsteps in East Africa. 500 

X Calderon de la Barca's (Mme.) Life in Mexico. 664 

Cobbett's Rural Rides. Introduction by Edward Thomas. 2 vols. 638-9 

L Cook's Voyages of Discovery. 99 

Cr6vecoeur'8 (H. St. John) Letters from an American Farmer. 640 
Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. 104 

(See also Science) 
Defoe's Tour Through England and Wales. Introduction by G. D, H. 
(See also Fiction) [Cole. 820-1 

Dennis' Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. 2 vols. 183-4 
Dufferin's (Lord) Letters from High Latitudes. 499 
Ford's Gatherings from Spain. Introduction by Thomas Okey. 152 
Franklin's Journey to the Polar Sea. Intro, by Capt. R. F. Scott. 447 
Giraldus Cambrensis: Itinerary and Description of Wales. 272 
Hakluyt's Voyages. 8 vols. 264, 265, 313, 314, 338, 339, 388, 389 
Kinglake's Eothen. Introduction by Harold Spender, M.A. 337 
Lane's Modern Egyptians. With many Illustrations. 315 

t Lytton's Pilgrims of the Rhine. 390 
(See also Fiction) 
Mandeville's (Sir John) Travels. Introduction by Jtdes Bramont. 812 
Park (Mungo): Travels. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 205 
Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers. Selected by E. H. Blakeney, M.A. 778 

L Polo's (Marco) Travels. Introduction by John Masefleld. 306 

Roberts' The Western Avernus. Intro, by Cunninghame Graham. 762 

L Speke's Discovery of the Source of the NUe. 50 

L Stevenson's An Inland Voyage, Travels with a Donkey, and Silverado 
Squatters. 766 

(See also Essays, Fiction, and Poetry) 
Stow's Survey of London. Introduction by H. B. Wheatley. 589 
Wakefield's Letter from Sydney and Other Writings on Colonization. 828 
Waterton's Wanderings in South America. Intro, by E. Selous. 7 72 
Young's Travels in France and Italy. Intro, by Thomas Okey. 720 


t Abbott's Rollo at Work and Rollo at Play. Intro, by Lucy Crump. 275 
L iEsop's and Other Fables: An Anthology from all sources. 657 
L Alcott's Little Men. Introduction by Grace Rhys. 512 
L „ Little Women and Good Wives. Intro, by Grace Rhys. 243 

Andersen's Fairy Tales. Illustrated by the Brothers Robinson. 4 

More Fairy Tales. Illustrated by Mary Shillabeer. 822 
Aunais of Fairyland. The Reign of King Oberon. 365 
^, „ The Reiyn of King Cole. 3G6 

,, The Reign of King Herla. 541 
xXpgard and the Norse Heroes. Translated by Mrs. Boult. 689 
Baker's Cast Up by the Sea. 539 
L Ballantyne's Coral Island. 24o 

Martin Rattler. 246 

Ungava. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 276 
L Browne's (Frances) Granny's Wonderful Chair. Introduction by Dollie 
Radford. 112 


FOR YOUNG ?EO?LE— continued 

Bulflnch's (Thomas) The Age of Fable. 472 

" Legends of Charlemagne. Intro, bv Ernest Rhvs. 556 

li, Canton's A Child' Book of Samts. Illustrated by T. H. Robinson. 61 

(See also Essays) 
L Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, Through the Looking-Glass, etc. Illus- 
trated by the Author. Introduction by Ernest Rhys. 836 
t Clfirke's Girlhood of Shakespeare's Heroines. 3 vols. 109-11 
„ Tales from Chaucer. 537 
Collodi's Pinocchio,* or. The Story of a Puppet. 538 
L Converse's (Florence) The House of Prayer. 923 {See also Fiction) 

Cox's (Sir G. W.) Tales of Ancient Greece. 721 
L Defoe's Robinson Crusoe. Illustrated by J. A. Symington. 59 
(See also Fiction) 
Dodge's (Mary Mapes) Hans Brinker; or. The Silver Skates. 620 
Edgar's Heroes of England. 471 
(See also Fiction) 
L Ewing's (Mrs.) Jackanapes, Daddy Darwin's Dovecot, illustrated by 
R. Caldecott, and The Story of a Short Life. 731 
Mrs. Overtheway's Remembrances. 730 
L Fairy Gold. Illustrat,ed by Herbert Cole. 157 
L Fairy Tales from the Arabian Nights. Illustrated. 249 
Freeman's Old English History for Children. 540 
Froissart's Chronicles. 57 

Gatty's Parables from Nature. Introduction by Grace Rhys. 158 
Grimm's Fairy Tales. Illustrated by R. Anning Bell. 56 
L Hawthorne's Wonder Book and Tanglewood Tales. 5 
(See also Fiction) 
Howard's Rattlin the Reefer. Introduction by Guy Pocock. 857 
i- Hughes* Tom Brown's School Days. Illustrated by T. Robinson. nS 
Ingelow's (Jean) Mopsa the Fairy. Illustrated by Dora Curtis. 619 
Jefferiea's (Richard) Bevis, the Story of a Boy. Introduction by Guy 
Pocock. 850 
L Kingsley's Heroes. Introduction by Grace Rhys. 113 

„ Madam How and Lady Why. Introduction by C. I. Gardiner, 

L „ Water Babies and Glaucus. 277 [M.A. 777 

(See also Poetry and Fiction) 
Kingston's Peter the Whaler. 6 
„ Three Midshipmen. 7 

L Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare. Illustrated by A. Rackhara. 8 

(See also Biography and Essays) 
L Lear (and Others): A Book of Nonsense. 806 
Marry at's Children of the New Forest. 247 

„ Little Savage. Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson. 159 
„ Masterman Ready. Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson. 160 
„ Settlers in Canada. Introduction by R. Brimley Johnson. 370 
„ (Edited by) Rattlin the Reefer. 857 

(See also Fiction) 
Martineau's Feats on the Fjords, etc. Illustrated by A. Rackham. 429 
Mother Goose's Nursery Rhyraes. Illustrated. 473 
Poetry Book for Boys and Girls. Edited by Guy Pocock. 894 
Reid's (MajTie) The Boy Hunters of the Mississippi. 582 

„ „ The Boy Slaves. Introduction bv Guy Pocock. 797 

Ruskin's The Two Boyhoods and Other Passages. 688 
(See also Essays) 
L Sewell's (Anna) Black Beauty. Illustrated by Lucy Kemp-Welch. 7 48 
L Spyri's (Johanna) Heidi. Illustrations by Lizzie Lawson. 431 
Story Book for Boys and Girls, Edited by Guy Pocock. 934 
Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. 371 
L Swift's Gulliver's Travels. Illustrated by A. Rackham. 60 

(See also Biography and Essays) 
L Swiss Family Robinson. Illustrations by Chgis. Folkard. 430 
Verne's (Jules) Abandoned. 50 Illustrations. 368 

„ „ Dropped from the Clouds. 50 Illustrations. 367 

L „ „ Five Weeks in a Balloon and Around the World in Eighty 

Days. Translated by Arthur Chambers and P. Dosages. 
L ,, „ Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. 319 [779 

„ The Secret of the Island. 50 Illustrations. 369 
L Yonge's (Charlotte M.) The Book of Golden Deeds. 330 

„ „ The Lances of Lynwood. Illustrated by Dora 

Curtis. 579 
L „ • „ The Little Duke. Illustrated by Dora Curtis. 470 

(See also Fiction) 









Made in Great Britain at The Temple Press, Letchworth, Herts (K I j6) 

6X7795 .W7 A3 1922 

3 5002 00253 3581 

Woolman, John 

The journal, with other writings of John 


Date -Due 


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